Sunday's Thoughts
by Alice-Alexandra-Sofia
 

 

Philosophy: the Beginning

 

Introduction

The Ancient Foundation

Philosophizing and Symbolism

The Minoan Legacy

Phoenician Civilization

Egyptian Civilization

The Orphic Doctrine

The Main Fruit of the Ancient Philosophical Thought: Heathenism

Conclusive Remarks

 

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Introduction

 

 

 

Each human mind is born into the three–dimensional κοσμος:

 

God, the Almighty Omnipotent Holy Spirit; His law–energy–power creates
and controls life at each level discernible by a human being

man – the unity of
spirit–heart–soul (energy), mind–intelligence (information), and body–flesh (matter)

the world – manifestation of the energy embodied into the information and the matter.

 

 

Cognition of truth–actuality of the three–dimensional κοσμος –– God man world –– is the essence of the human mind. Without knowledge of the higher and lower levels–dimensions–realms, man is not able to survive and to accomplish the purposes for the sake of which he lives:

–– the mind must know God–Creator Whose will–law controls human life and the world accommodating human existence

–– the mind must know the world, which accommodates human existence

–– the mind must know own nature – firstly, the terms and conditions of own survival in relation to the will–law of God–Creator and in accordance with the laws controlling existence of the world of the matter.

Consequently, the entirety of human knowledge includes three domains–realms: knowledge of the law–will of God – theology, knowledge of the laws that control the world and their manifestations – philosophy*1*, and knowledge how to create and to use knowledge.

The original purpose of philosophy (philosophy as the second level–domain or component of the overall framework–setting of human knowledge) is knowledge of the world of the matter, in which man has to survive: to maintain own existence and to achieve the purposes of existence adequate to the human nature, therefore to actualize the highest potency of the being that is the unity of

energy  ⇒  spirit––soul

⇓                           ⇓

information  ⇒  mind––intelligence

⇓                            ⇓

matter   ⇒ body––flesh.

 

Traditionally, philosophy is considered as the pinnacle of human wisdom; the very name φιλοσοφιasignifies love of (or inclination to) wisdom.

The adequate, or life–sustaining, knowledge might be created only within the special all–inclusive, comprehensive and universal framework, which at the level of human mind has name wisdom.

The mind that possesses wisdom is capable of operating at three levels of complexity; or it might be said that three domains of knowledge sustain human wisdom, therefore, maintain natural life of the mind: theology, philosophy, and epistemology.

The most significant feature of human wisdom is the ability to observe the law of adequate complexity, and firstly, do not mix the levels of consideration; for instance, do not apply philosophy–fruit of human mind for creation of theological knowledge, which already is complete, because it was revealed by God.

Consequently, at least four abilities are necessary for a human mind that strives to obtain wisdom – to become able of cognition and creation the life–sustaining knowledge (life–sustaining knowledge is knowledge adequate to the actuality; this knowledge secures survival of men and supports life according to the human nature):

1/ the ability to discern the different levels of complexity and to apply the adequate means of cognition–perception, creation, and actualization–embodiment of knowledge

2/ the ability to ascend to the highest level of complexity – the knowledge of God–Creator; this knowledge – theology – determines the way into the eternity

3/ the ability to cognize the essence–nature of things – the laws*2*, which, within the time–space–complexity settings of the worlds of the matter, determine creation, existence, survival, and destruction of the material subjects (a particular material subject is a particular manifestation of the energy embodied into the information and the matter, which has the features perceivable by human being, for instance those described with the physical parameters); the foundation of this knowledge is philosophy

4/ the ability to survive by embodiment of the created knowledge of the manifestations of the matter into the structures and systems, which would compose, sustain, and control the world of the matter; for instance, words, concepts, sciences, hierarchies of power, establishments, civilizations. This knowledge traditionally was identified as epistemology; now it is evolving into the more advanced science: the science of creation–accumulation–preservation–transfer–application–management–embodiment–actualization of knowledge.

A philosophical inquiry should pursue two purposes:

1/ knowledge of the essence – the truth, which determines survival of mankind within the material perceivable world

2/ knowledge of the methods and ways of embodiment of the discovered truth into other peoples’ thoughts, words, and actions, through which they would sustain and optimize life of mankind within the material perceivable world.

Therefore, in general, philosophy could be seen as the set of tools, techniques, criteria, and rules of creation and interpretation of knowledge of the lower levels of the cosmos – the world of the matter and organization of human life within it, which the mind employs in its efforts to survive, to accomplish own purposes, to actualize own nature within the world of the matter, and to dominate the world.

Philosophy, as the summary of assumptions concerning the nature of the world and the purposes of man, is the foundation on which the mind creates thoughts and intentions, arranges them into political, social, military and other doctrines, and embodies into establishments, with which it expects to secure and to optimize own existence (such establishments include civilizations, cultures, states, societies, social, political, research institutions, systems of defense, etc.).

Philosophy behind words, actions, political and social systems defines the destiny of their creators and those who these creations influence or control.

Philosophy that sustains an establishment – civilization, state, political, social, and any other system –determines and discloses the essence and destiny of the establishment.

The ancient image of the universe is the flux – a stream of changes, where changes produce life and sustain existence of the world; consequently, the ancient thinkers devised philosophy as the flux –– open for modifications system, which, as they assumed, would reflect changes of the constantly changing world of the matter.

Accordingly, the wisdom was interpreted as perception of motion and flux, and the meaning of knowledge as the mind’s following the motion of things, and the purposes of this study include

–– analysis of consequences of such design of framework for creation of human knowledge

–– analysis of the results of application of knowledge created within this framework.

 

 

The Ancient Foundation

 

The cluster of ancient civilizations formed the mutual foundation, on which the current systems of philosophical, religious, social, and political doctrines evolved. The philosophical, religious, and political foundation of the contemporary civilization looks like a mosaic; it includes

–– bits and pieces of doctrines and thoughts, whose origin might be traced to the Chaldeans

–– religions and cults, which are rooted in the Minoan myths interpreted by the Orphics

–– social and political utopias of Plato

–– doctrines of Aristotle (mostly, elaborations of Plato’s utopias for practical use)

–– Stoic doctrines embodied into the set of political, military, social, and religious institutions, which is known as the Roman Empire and which still serves as a model for those who aspire to the absolute power and world–wide domination

–– and the others.

The ancient systems of thought developed by the priests–diviners of the Chaldean, Egyptian and Minoan civilizations and their adaptations by Pythagoras (582–500 B.C.), Xenophanes of Colophon (570–480(?) B.C.), Anaxagoras (500(?)–428 B.C.), Protagoras (480–410 B.C.), Parmenides (~450 B.C.), and Socrates (469–399 B.C.), shaped the outlook of Plato (427–347 B.C.).

Plato interpreted and generalized assumptions of the previous generations of thinkers; upon the generalized summary, he created the imaginary world of philosophical, political, and social utopias, which underlies the contemporary political, social, and religious institutions.

Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) fashioned dreams of Plato into the forms suitable for implementation into political establishments; his writings still serve as the manuals for philosophers, politicians, and Western theologians.

The builders of the Roman Empire supplemented Aristotelian pragmatic doctrines with the Stoicism – a concoction of ideas of the Orphics, Socrates and some other (pre–Socratic) ancient thinkers. 

In general, the works of Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics absorbed the majority of ideas concerning philosophy, religion, politics, logic, ethics, and epistemology created by the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean region and Middle East; they compose the general foundation on which the contemporary politics and sciences work.

The cluster of ancient civilizations in the Mediterranean region and Middle East has the same root – the Babylon before language confusion {Genesis 11:1–9}, the same patterns of life–defining relations, and the same three domains for application of philosophy:

 

human being  deities

 ⇑

human being  human beings

 ⇑

human being  human establishments

      

They also have the same destiny: they all reached the peak of power and prosperity, and they all vanished. All of them are the creation of the dreaming mind: in all of them, the mythical thinking stipulated and shaped the actuality – political, social, and cultural life. Their essence has been embodied into the shared imaginary worlds of heathenism – the mythical and symbolic religions, cults, and doctrines concerning deities, men, and the entire cosmos. All of them have the same working tool – the logic of insufficiency (or the logic of death*3*), the same patterns of development, and other common features; all they contributed into the imaginary world of false assumptions, which became the cradle of the following civilizations.

The cluster of civilizations–creators of the domain of knowledge on which the contemporary Western (Aristotelian) civilization emerged includes

 

…………………………………

…………  Babylonian–Chaldean Civilization ………..

[~3000 B.C.–– 600 B.C.]

⇓                                     

Minoan Civilization    Egyptian Civilization

[~3000 B.C –– 1100 B.C.]                                 [~3000 B.C –– 332 B.C.]

⇓                       ⇓                          

⇓                                                     

            Phoenician Civilization                     

⇓                            ⇓                         

[~2750 B.C –– 146 B.C.]

⇓                            ⇓                         

|––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––|

⇓                                                     

Mycenaean Civilization                           ….…?……………

                                                                       [1900 B.C –– ? B.C.] 

⇓                                              

Ionians                                       Dorians

[1150 B.C –– ? B.C.]                   [1100 B.C –– ? B.C.]

⇓                                             

Greek Cities–States       Sparta

[750 B.C –– 192 B.C.]                    [900 B.C –– 192 B.C.]

|–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––|

Romans

[509 B.C –– A.D.476]

Western Civilization

 

 

The Babylonian/Chaldean civilization (~3000 B.C. until the sixth century B.C.) became the golden head of the ancient empires; it accumulated the knowledge, which determined the long–lasted supremacy, power, glory, unrivaled might and unprecedented wealth of the Babylonian kingdoms and empires.

The Chaldean priests invented divination, magic and sorcery, ritual arts, astronomy and astrology; they planted the root from which all heathen religious beliefs, philosophical, political, social, and cultural assumptions evolved. They designed rituals of worship and divination by ascribing a/ the meaning of worship and veneration of deities and b/ the means, through which the “will of gods” can be learnt and accomplished, to

1/ particular actions, e.g., kneeling before the statue or at the Moon–rise, wearing special garments, feast or deprivation of food, order of movements of priest–sacrificer during sacrifice, temple dance movements, preparation of special food

2/ particular settings, within which the ritual movement should be performed, for instance, before the stone tables–altars on which victims must be killed–sacrificed, in special buildings–temples, before trees, on the tops of mountains.

So, actions of men with material objects and with other living beings became the confirmation of existence of non–existing deities–figments of imagination, the means to cognize their will and to change the attitude toward men, for instance, to placate deities and to avert their wrath, which otherwise could result in natural disasters, earthquakes, famine, defeat by enemy, plague, unknown disease, etc.

Rituals, which were performed with the material objects as the means to influence behavior of the deities, and human sacrifices, which denigrated human being to the slave of beasts (and therefore, substituted the figments of imagination for knowledge of the original human nature), resulted in establishment of belief into the eternal indestructible and uncreated matter – source of origin of gods, animals, men, and everything else.

It means that the Chaldeans planted the root of deification of the matter when they accepted the matter as the means to influence the spirit, for instance, to sacrifice a visible–perceivable–living being for appeasement of invisible deity.

The core of the knowledge, which later was named philosophy, came into existence when the human imagination began

– to accept the manifestations of the matter and the material objects as the means of cognition of the invisible world of the deities

– to apply the assumptions concerning the invisible world of the deities toward the world of men.  

As soon as the particular civilization, empire, nation, state accepted at least some knowledge and especially, the religious beliefs of the Chaldeans, two simultaneous processes began: 

1/ adaptation and modification of accepted knowledge; this process culminated in creation of the imaginary world tailored to the local customs, and national, state, and cultural features

2/ embodiment of the created imaginary world into the religious, political, and cultural establishments, which have the purposes to sustain and protect own existence and to impose own world on other nations, states, and their institutions.


 

Philosophizing and Symbolism

 

The ancient thinkers invented three tools, with which they created knowledge of the imaginary world of cosmos and its divisions: gods, men, perceivable world; they accepted name philosophy  for application of these tools and framework of knowledge, which accommodates their application and development; they harvested its first fruits – the set of religions, cults and ideologies known under the collective name heathenism

 

Philosophizing in the temples

 ⇓                   ⇑           ⇓

Symbolism       Logic

          ⇓

           Philosophy
Heathenism

 

 

 “Philosophizing” is the set of techniques, which stimulate imagination, and rules of creation of the figments of imagination that are intended to become articles of faith, the features of deities, hierarchies of gods, definitions of the connections of human and deities, and all other matters that facilitate control of the mass population and sustain the social, political, and religious establishments by

–– composing the realms of heathen theology, philosophy, and politics

–– establishing rules and rites of worship to deities and the responsibilities before the rulers – the earthly embodiments of gods.

In general, philosophizing is possible only by entering the altered states of mind. The mind that entered altered state accepts hallucinations and “visions” as the insights; in its delusion, it believes that it penetrated the realm of divine, from which the philosophizer extracts “true knowledge” of the worlds of men and gods.

The philosophizing mind identifies itself, the deities, the terms and necessities of the settings in which it exists, and own desires and purposes with some particular symbols–sets of assumptions expressed with images of the surrounding material world. The mind assumes own ability to cognize the divine and to describe the divine with the symbols created from images of the material world; then, it accepts phantasms created with own imagination as the true knowledge of God, itself, and the world in which it has to live. However, such acceptance of false knowledge means that the mind has perverted own nature and became inadequate to own natural/original core–essence–main pattern that is to the image of God.

The philosophizing still sustains creation of idols and idol–worship in the contemporary meaning (ideologies, propaganda, and countless “isms” serving enslaving of man). In general, this practice is employed by those who need

1/ to create idols after own actual or assumed self–image linked with the surrounding material objects

2/ to ascribe supernatural and spiritual power to own creation–idol although it is a figment of imagination composed after likeness of the world of matter

3/ to assert the figments of own imagination and illusions as the spiritual gifts, revelations, and “wisdom” of the imaginary deities

4/ to classify figments of own imagination (including the imaginary “gifts” and “wisdom”) as prophecy, new true religion, or true philosophy

5/ to forcefully impose false religion, heathen philosophy, or false knowledge onto the others.

Within any ancient body of knowledge, symbolism, philosophy and theology were inseparable. The Egyptian priests, scribes, and astrologers practiced “true philosophizing” [Chaeremon Fragment 10  23], and the Greek philosophers were initiated into the secret mysteries performed at temples [Plato Letters II:314a–b, VII:341c–d ]. The main practical significance of symbolism for the Egyptian priests was an opportunity to interpret their myths according to the purposes and needs of a current pharaoh: symbolism of philosophizing diviners sustained the social and political order of ancient Egypt.

The philosophizing in the temples became the source of symbolical mythic theology, which sustained religious–political–social pyramid of the Egyptian civilization, was absorbed into political theology of the ancient Greek polis, and into the multitude of heathen religions and cults (including cults of divine emperors, leaders of religious and political establishments, and the state). Furthermore, symbolic religions produced the seed from which political theology, ideologies, and propaganda sprung.

The essence of symbolism might be inferred from the Holy Scriptures: there is  a prophecy that God will use parabolas {Psalm 77(78):2; Matthew 13:10–17, 34–35; Mark 4:11–12; John 6:45; 8:31–32; for instance, “Ανοιξω εν παραβολαις το στομα μου, φθεγξομαι προβληματα απ αpxης / ερενξομαι κεκρυμμενα απο καταβολαιξ κοσμου” – I will open My mouth in parabolas, dark issues of the elements / “I will utter things hidden from the foundations of the world”} and there is a description of its fulfillment, when Lord God Jesus Christ explains His words

–– His followers receive knowledge of mystery of the Kingdom of God – they are taught by God, therefore, they enabled to cognize the truth, which sets them free

–– to “the outers” parables (associated with φθεγξομαι προβληματα απ αpxης –– dark issues of the elements) are given, so they see, yet, they do not perceive, they hear, yet, they do not understand; so they would not turn to the truth and would not be healed and, therefore, forgiven.

In the Old Testament, parable (παραβολη) is mentioned in context of humiliation. At the time of revelation of The Ten Commandments, Moses warned his tribesmen that because of the curse, which falls upon those disobedient to the Law (famine, pestilence, destruction, and slaughter by the enemies), the survivors would be carried away and become the parable and a tale for other nations. Then, it was told that against those who devise troubles for the others a parable will be taken up {Deuteronomy 28:15–37; Micah 2:4}. The Prophets have seen as the great tragedy the Future, in which Israel becomes parable for other nations to which the Law was not given: the other nations would watch humiliation and suffering of the chosen people and use their misery in their tales–parables.

Therefore, parable is a story with hidden or symbolical meaning – an allegory, a comparison, the meaning of which the listeners have to infer, yet, their inference would not give the complete and true knowledge.

A parable, allegory, symbol, and comparison  are attempts to convey some generalized knowledge; they suggest explanation of a phenomenon by its similarity with other events with already deciphered or commonly accepted meanings, or by its likeness to the commonly known practices and customs. In the Septuagint, a parable is associated with “dark issues of the elements,” the mysteries of the foundations of the world; as such, it demands the work of reasoning and imagination. It means that true understanding cannot be received through parables–allegories–symbols: those outside are given parables so, seeing they will not perceive and understand, lest they should convert and sins be forgiven to them {Mark 4:11–12}.

Furthermore, in the Holy Scriptures {Genesis 8:21; Isaiah 6:9–11; Matthew 13:11–15; Mark 4:11–12; John 8:32; 17:14–20, 25–26}

–– understanding and knowledge are linked to forgiveness of sins, sanctification, and love of God, after which the mind comes to cognition of truth

–– inability to perceive by heart, to convert (to return to the righteousness) and to be forgiven are the consequences of changes of the heart, when the heart (that by its very nature is the dwelling of the Law) becomes overburdened or engrossed (επαχυνθη) with other matters, therefore, loses its natural inclination to God and focuses on the world of the visible perceivable (and destined to destruction) matter; so the blindness of the engrossed heart will be completed with removing of humans and desolation of the land {Isaiah 6:9–11}

–– imagination is linked with evil.

It means that symbols do not provide the exact and true meaning. A symbol does not contain true knowledge, which is open to understanding {people hear, yet, they do not understand, and people see, yet, they do not perceive – Mark 4:11–12; Isaiah 6:9–10}. The “knowledge,” which is transferred through the symbols, allegories, and other secondary layer of the creations of the mind, lacks complexity of the actuality. Such knowledge is simplified, and the listener has to interpret–supplement this knowledge with own imagination. Besides, only imagination could make sense from something that cannot be understood or perceived: the meanings of symbols are modified according to the features of their interpreters (e.g., education or illiteracy, conditions of existence, necessities, purposes, expectations, potentials and weaknesses). Therefore, assumptions compiled by operations with symbols and symbolic thinking would lead to destruction and desolation as any false knowledge does.

In the religious matters, the richness of imagination becomes the greatest danger, because allegorical (or symbolic) interpretation allows assigning of any meaning to any text according to the morality, outlook, experience, and imagination of an interpreter. However, the sacred religious texts convey the truth, which must remain absolute if the religion is expected to survive in its original distinctness.

For those who achieved completeness of knowledge and understanding, symbolism might be likened to the language of children and to a whisper in the darkness, which might hint at the road to either to the light or into the bottomless pit.

The systems concept of knowledge allows elaboration of the meaning of symbolism. The mind is able to comprehend knowledge at three levels of complexity:

1/ the unity of energy, universal code/pattern of creation, and the creative force – the universal power; this unity is the source of all knowledge (knowledge as the derivative of divine energy that creates life and sustains existence of the universe) within the world of man, and this is the level of the highest complexity, which the mind might access

2/ the level of interactions among the energy fields–settings defining the existence of the matter; these levels of lesser complexity are accessible by the mind within the routine actions reflecting the meaning of mind’s daily existence

3/ the levels of matter; at these levels of the lowest complexity, the knowledge manifests itself through embodiment into the material structures, which compose the visible (or physical) world of human beings.

An attempt to comprehend or explain the nature, inner laws, and manifestations of the higher level of complexity with the meanings innate for the lowest levels of complexity cannot be successful: the threshold between each level of complexity is the consequence of the laws on which the Universe is built. All disasters of mankind have their root in the phenomenon, which might be defined as simplification that is an attempt to describe the different levels of complexity with the languages and meanings of the lowest level of complexity.

The phenomenon of symbolism illustrates the consequences of simplification that is the violation of the systems law of adequate complexity. In its application to the mental consideration, observation of the law of adequate complexity would preclude mixing the levels of consideration. For instance, philosophy–fruit of human mind would never be applied for creation or modification of theological knowledge, which already is complete, because it revealed by God – Creator of the human mind.

Symbolism presents one of the facets of the phenomenon of simplification: the foundation of symbolism is a belief that there is a similarity among phenomena with the different levels of complexity; this belief results, for instance, in such assumptions as

– the nature of God–Spirit might be described with analogies and symbols created as a result of observation of the material structures

– the play at the arena for amusement of the spectators might adequately describe the actual life

– the imaginary dream world conveys the actuality of existence

– the human nature might be improved and human diseases and disorders might be healed through studies and experiments with animals, creation of chimeras (e.g., such as hybrid of rodent–human, avian–human, vegetable–human embryos), experiments on chimeras, and application of the results of experiments with chimeras, animals, and non–humans to the human being.

In general, symbolism might be defined as an application of knowledge of the material structures to the laws, which control the energy–source of the matter. Therefore, those who employ symbolism for creation of theological knowledge produce heresies leading to degeneration and ruin of religious establishments. For instance, with the Egyptian method of symbolic interpretation of the sacred for them myths, the philosophizing mind of Philo of Alexandria transformed the Books of Moses into the heathen philosophical treatise – a collection of myths and allegories interpreted with unguarded imagination.

In summary,

a/ insufficiency of the knowledge begets symbolism, covers it with the name of philosophy – love of wisdom, and ascribes the name of truth to fantasies created by imagination

b/ symbolism results in creation, dissemination, and acceptance of false knowledge, because a symbol does not convey the true meaning; symbolism is a distinguishing feature of those who cannot comprehend the true meaning of the actuality

c/ symbolism is the language of insufficiency and misunderstanding; it is the tool of those who live in darkness, build on the sand, and fail, because they rejected the true foundation of life, the only Stone on which the eternal life of a human being is built {Psalm 117(118):22; Matthew 7:24–27; 21:42–46; 1 Peter 2:3–10; Isaiah 28:16}.

The main vehicle for transfer of symbols and re–creation of symbolic realities of the predecessors is myth. In general, myth conveys the code of the Past: myth discloses the outlook of its creators, the philosophical foundation on which a particular symbolic world was built. From such a point of view, myth might be seen as

– the definition of the core of a system – society, civilization, which adopted the myth as an explanation and expression of its essence

– the program of re–creation of the system.

The history of human thought reveals the constant struggle between actuality and knowledge of truth and mythical/dream worlds of symbolism. This struggle grew into the full–fledged war after the Apostles began to preach the Gospels. Eventually, the plague of symbolic–mythical–magical thinking prevailed in the West: it became the foundation of the European civilization and of all religious denominations created by those minds, which imposed own interpretation onto the Holy Scriptures. During centuries, philosophizing theologians*4* and scientists developed plenty of symbolic descriptions and rules of their interpretation; ultimately, they substituted simplified knowledge transferred through imaginary worlds of symbols and their interpretations for truth of the actuality: a symbol received the status of the reality. The foundation of the European civilization became the specific knowledge framework – the all–fitting motherboard on which any symbolic imaginary world can be built and developed into a new version of the Inferno of false knowledge and denigration of the image of God and its carrier–man.

If to employ the story of the Plato’s cave, symbolism might be equated to an attempt to re–create the actuality of the world by the prisoner who at the moment of his birth was confined within the dark underground cave and who is able to see only the shadows on the wall penetrating in his darkness from the world in which he never was admitted. So, even if he hears the sounds of the actual world and if he sees the shadows of things, he does not comprehend their true meaning.

Such a vision of symbolism has not received the wide recognition: symbolism sustains thinking of the majority of theologians, philosophers, and researchers who unnoticeably for themselves slid into the shared imaginary worlds. Within such dream worlds,

 

theology degenerates into the description of idols created into the images of beasts

 ⇑

philosophy sells false knowledge to the slaves who portray themselves as free thinkers

 ⇑

sciences destroy their creators and consumers with poisonous fruits of false knowledge,
which it is offered as life–saving remedy.

 

With its influence on the development of the societies, and especially, sciences, symbolism became a full–fledged companion of Aristotelian dialectics (in the realm of philosophy, the Aristotle’s dialectics serves as the adequate description of the logic of simplification on which the contemporary civilization was founded and with which it is ruining itself).

Deprivation of the Absolute Good, which Aristotelian materialism and logic of simplification imposed on the natural sciences, ethics, and politics, did not leave any universal (or at least sufficient) foundation for the human reasoning, yet, without the universal foundation, the particular properties become irrational assumptions. It is not a coincidence that, for many, symbolism supplanted the natural mode of human thought. Moreover, the process of creation of symbolic worlds became the subject of developmental psychology (founded by Piaget, Werner, and Schachtel) – the tool for studying problems created within the mansociety  realm. Indeed, to operate with symbols, the mind needs intuition, imagination, and a set of the standards/rules, which regulate comprehension and interpretation of symbols created by the others.

Consequently, symbolic worlds might disclose the typical patterns of thinking and other features of their creators and their participants.

However, some philosophers and researchers discovered the danger of symbolic thinking. For instance, Ludwig von Bertalanffy (the founder of the general systems theory) acknowledges that philosophy describes “primitive magic” of taking symbols for things as the “realism of concepts” for the real things [von Bertalanffy 46].

Whatever the nature of symbolic activity is, whichever myths the heathen philosophy offers to its consumers, the actuality is that symbolism and “true philosophizing” have penetrated all sciences and thrown the consumers of their discoveries, innovations, and assertions into the constantly unstable world of false knowledge, which is not able to sustain evolution of human mind and progress of human societies. The contemporary world became the collage of collapsing dissipating systems – political, social, religious establishments, which in theory should sustain decent and prosperous life, yet, which, in fact, became the confinements for the people suffering from insufficiencies of all kinds.

The overall picture of the contemporary epistemological and philosophical practices suggests the conclusion similar, for instance, to the Socrates’ question–guess–inference [Plato Cratylus 411d–e; 439a–e; 440a–c; Theaetetus 152d–e; 156a–d; 157b–c; 182d–e]: is true knowledge possible within the constantly changing world, or does man exist within the unhealthy state of unreality? The Socrates’ question reveals the tragedy of the imaginary world of the heathenism where Socrates has to live and to die.

Probably, today, different minds would give different answers to the Socrates’ questions, yet, the actual answer is that in the heathen societies and establishments, the people do live in the imaginary worlds of evil, within the unhealthy state of unreality. 

 

The Minoan Legacy

 

The Minoan civilization (Crete) [Cicero III.xxiii. 58; Homer The Iliad; The Odyssey; Durant 5–23; Evans 287, 298–299; Graves 1:41, 87–95, 103, 107–114, 119–120, 127–130; 181, 183, 198–199, 232, 236–237, 279, 293–298, 302–311, 316; 2:151, 366; 2:367; Hall (2005) 13; Herodotus 72–73; James 41–45, 54–55, 82–85, 89, 99–106; Kishlansky, Geary, O’Brien 38; Ventris 303, 311; The Sunset Knowledge; etc.] originated before 3000 B.C., reached the peak of unprecedented for its time power and influence in 1600 B.C., and disappeared about 1100 B.C.

During their time–range, the Minoans determined not only the political, social, and commercial affairs of the Mediterranean nations: all heathen cults, religious and philosophical doctrines, which have evolved within the Mediterranean region, carry their part of the Minoan heritage, and the most elaborated hierarchies of deities are rooted in the Minoan myths.

The female deity dominated the Minoan pantheon of gods. The name of the main Minoan island – Crete came from κρατεια which is the derivative of κρατω  (rule) and  κρατος (power, state) and might be interpreted as “the ruling power/goddess.” The main Minoan deity is the goddess symbolized by a serpent and double axe: a symbol of dualism (the creative and destructive power emanating from one source) and a symbol of waxing and waning moon. The Minoan goddess holds a snake (or two in both hands) and the venomous vipers coil her body; sometimes, she is surrounded with bull/cow’s horns, doves, and lions. Her worshipers ascribed to her the power over good and evil, life and death; her cult includes the death and fertility rites, which demand

– human and animal sacrifices

– ritual intercourse of humans with animals (for the heathens, this act symbolizes the fusion of the bestial deities and men).

There is an opinion that the double axe was an instrument of sacrifice; other symbols of the goddess include shield, cross, and swastika (often depicted on the forehead of the bulls and the figurines of the goddesses) [e.g., Durant 14].

The Minoans ascribed to their goddess with snakes the authority over life and death in all ancient divisions of the Universe: the Earth (mountains), vegetation (trees and crops), animal (the wild beasts), and human (the living and the dead) domains. The Minoan goddess with snakes became the Greek Rhea – mother of gods or the “great goddess” and then, Roman “great mother,” Phrygian “great mother Cybele,” etc.; her functions and features originated the flock of local deities.

From the Minoan centers of divination in Delos and Pharos (the Cretan islands), the Mediterranean nations received oracular edicts, which, in fact, were the orders and directives: they conveyed the rules and terms of survival and the guidance for development communicated as the will of deities. The Minoans established the famous Delphi oracle’s service: they built the shrine, where the priestess of Python the “sacred” serpent uttered her predictions. Then, the Apollo’s cult prevailed: according to the myth, Apollo killed Python, violated the Python’s priestess, and assumed the duties of the main sponsor of divination.

From the capital situated in the main island (Crete) and guarded by the powerful fleet, the Minoan chief priests–“sacred” kings controlled the Mediterranean nations and actualized their conquests. The Minoans’ commercial, trade, and other communications were fast and effective; they reached as far as the lands later known as India and China.

The Minoans developed the sophisticated system of writing; the Minoan hieroglyphs formed many Mediterranean alphabets, including the Phoenician and the early Egyptian. The names mentioned in the Greek myths and the names from the Minoan tablets coincide; the Minoan mythology today still lives under the name of the Greek mythology. With the Minoan language, the Ionians re–told and eventually wrote down the poems of Homer: The Iliad and The Odyssey. Ultimately, the Minoan–Ionian language was developed into the Koine, the common Greek, with which the New Testament was written.

The remnants of the Cretan palaces reveal the high quality and comfort of daily life; the island had paved streets and water pipelines; the survived wall paintings and artifacts unveil the unique sense of beauty and the sophisticated fine arts.

After destruction of the island center, the survived part of Minoan population migrated to Cyprus, Aegean Islands, Palestine, Egypt, Attica, Euboea, West Coast of Turkey (Ionia), Southern Italy, and other lands. The nations, which were established or conquered by the Minoans, and among which the Minoans settled (and among which they eventually disappeared as the distinct group, although there is a belief that all royal priesthood of the Mediterranean region had the Minoan blood), assumed and modified the legacy of the Minoans according to own level of development. The Mycenaean civilization became the direct heir. Some researchers trace the influence of the Minoans on the Indus and Chinese civilizations.

The essence of the Minoan civilization was encrypted into the myths. Deciphering the myths and symbols of the Minoans would allow restoration of the knowledge, which determined historical development of all those who accepted the legacy of the Minoans, therefore, facilitate comprehension of the Past of the preceding civilizations, the Present and the Future (if any) of the contemporary and, probably, the features and the Future of the consequent civilizations. Obviously, the main point of interest should be the rationale behind Minoans’ justification of the manner of life, their outlook, and the world which they built and into which they embodied their dreams, expectations, and vision of the actuality.

The founder of the Minoan civilization was a son of Zeus and Europe. Zeus assumed an image of a white bull, kidnapped Europe, and brought her to Crete, where she born him a son – Minos. After Minos’ death, Zeus made him one of the Judges of the Dead in Hades. In the eyes of the believers, this appointment would definitely confirm the power of Cretan priests–kings over the living and over the dead. This particular myth became the root of belief in the absolute power of an earthly ruler as the power to influence the world of deities and to determine the destiny of human soul after death.

When Minos ascended the Cretan throne, he asked Poseidon to send a bull for sacrifice. Yet, when the beautiful white bull emerged from the sea, Minos decided to keep it in his herds and sacrificed another animal. Later, Poseidon avenged the broken promise: he imposed on Minos’ wife Pasiphae unnatural lust to the spared bull. According to the myth, Daedalus was moved by the suffering of the Minos’ wife; he assisted her in making her dream come true*5*.

The same Daedalus built a special palace – the Labyrinth, in which Minos hid his dishonor along with his infamous wife, with the monster she delivered, and with Daedalus and Daedalus’ son Icarus. In his anger and shame, Minos began to sacrifice humans to Minotaur; his female subjects, which always and in all civilizations, follow the example of the ruler’s wives and concubines, began to imitate the Pasiphae’s passion to the beast. Probably, that is how the rites of the goddess with snakes were justified.

Daedalus constructed artificial wings and eventually fled the Labyrinth with his son, yet, Icarus obsessed with pride flew too high and too close to the Sun. The Sun melted wax, which connected Icarus’ wings, and he perished in the sea, most likely as the punishment for “scientific inquiries” of his father. Consequently, the ancient inhabitants of Palestine (some sources identify them with the Phoenicians) made the annual sacrifice to the Sun by burning a boy who wore the eagle’s wings. 

Traditionally, all Cretan kings received the name of “Minos” and their subjects were called “Minoans.” Probably, that is why some authors assume that “Minos” is a title of a “sacred” king, not a traditional royal name. The ritual of ascension to the throne included marriage of the Sun–king wearing the bull mask with the Moon–priestess wearing the horns of a cow. Obviously, bovid animals had a particular significance for the Minoans:

1/ Minos was a son of the main Greek deity (Zeus) who assumed the image of a bull, and after an intercourse with the bull, Pasiphae delivered the monster Minotaur–half–bull and half–man with a head of a bull, and with lower part of man’s body; for the Minoans, such a composition of Minotaur signified the supremacy of the bestial deities over the man and a possibility of unification of the “divine” nature of the animal with the human nature

2/ the Moon–priestess wore the horns of a cow 

3/ Minos sacrificed boys to the Minotaur, and Minotaur became the symbol of death for the world, which worshipped death.

The similarities of the Minoan white bull–Zeus and Moon–cow can be found

                – in Egyptian religion; the white bull Apis was connected with deities of fertility and the dead; it was a sacred animal of Osiris – the main deity of the underworld; the Egyptians also had the cult of Serapis – a combination of Osiris with Apis (Serapis could be an Egyptian version of the Minoan Minotaur)

                – in the Indo–Iranian mythology (the cosmic bull, whose blood gives fertility)

– in the mysterious cult of Jupiter Dolichenus standing on a bull and holding the double axe. This cult, which the Roman soldiers brought in Rome along with the fruits of their conquests, could also have the roots in the cult of an ancient Vedic deity Shiva the Bull Rider–embodiment of death, destroyer, and creator; other sources assert that Jupiter Dolichenus originated from the Hittite deity of fertility or associate it with the main Zoroastrian deity Ahura Mazda

                – in the cult of Istar (Akkadia) also known as Astarte (Western Asia), Inanna (Sumeria), Ashtoreth (the nations, which surrounded Israel), Isis/Hathor (Egypt; Hathor was identified with a cow), Aphrodite (Greece), Hera (Greece; Hera’s sacred animal was a cow), Juno (Roman version of Hera), and the others.

Although the different nations has their local versions of the female deity and worshipped them as the queen of the universe, goddess of death, war, love, fertility and weather, the vast majority of the Mediterranean–Asian cults of death are connected with the bull, cow, and serpent, and their rites include human and animal sacrifices. 

The surviving myths and references to the rites of the Minoan goddess with snakes/the Moon–goddess (as well as the rites similar to those of the Minoans, especially, Phrygian and other local versions of female deity in Asia Minor, North Africa, and continental Greece) describe the wild rites and orgies during which women intoxicated themselves by wine and narcotic substances. Then, with frenetic dances, women entered into a state of frenzy intended to transform them into the wild she–beasts that copulated with humans and animals and killed humans and animals. These rites were intended to confirm unity of life (identified with the sex) with death.

The sexual promiscuity of the priestesses and their consequent insanity and degeneration (and insanity and degeneration of their children) contributed into ultimate enthronement of the patriarchal social and political order and establishment of the male deity as the head of hierarchy. The myth of Orpheus sustains an assumption that the rituals of “sacred” prostitution were instituted in an attempt to control bestial lechery, which women developed through imitation of the beasts during the wild rites of female deities. At least, this kind of “service” to the deities did not threaten survival of the society and even had an appearance of the sanctioned piety, because “sacred” prostitution and sodomy practiced at temples as the rites of worship.

It looks like Minoans recognized the logical connection between following the law as the essence of the nature, and continuing existence of any system, which is an embodiment of the law. They comprehended the law as the life and death condition; death was the main deity and the main law of the Minoan world.

In the symbolic form, the Minoan law of death became the inexorable Fate of ancient Greek tragedies: the ancient gods, especially as embodiments of the forces of the Nature, along with their mortal authors were subjects to Fate – the destiny.

The Minoan priests–kings invented the sophisticated rituals of human sacrifices; during one of them intended to prevent the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and to secure plentiful harvest, the bulls killed leaping dancers.

The bones of sacrificed children discovered at the Knossos’ palace signify that the slices of flesh were removed from the bodies. This finding corroborates the ancient myth of Zagreus–son of Zeus and Persephone (the ancient version of Dionysus) who was killed and his flesh was devoured: each year a boy–surrogate for Minos the Bull–king was sacrificed and the priests along with members of the royal elite ate raw flesh of the sacrificed child. Later, this rite was performed in the ninth year of king’s rule (in the year of the hundredth lunation). Probably, insufficiency of boys caused such modification, although the surrounding nations were under the obligation to send young boys and girls from the noble families as a particular tribute to the Minoan rulers (boys were sacrificed to the Minotaur and other idols; girls were trained to become the leaping dancers).

In other Mediterranean and Asia Minor lands, the human sacrifices accompanied all main festivities. For instance,

– at the dawn of the next day after Babylonian New Year, a boy was sacrificed

– in Greece, boys and girls wearing ivy and corn wreaths were killed at the harvest orgies; during special autumn orgies, the priestess of Moon–goddess tore children and animals to pieces

– the priestess dressed as mares devoured the sacred king (or his substitute) at the end of his reign.

Seemingly, for the Minoans, death was the supreme power whose authority even deities could not diminish: the Minoans invented the death of gods. They believed that their Zeus (son of the goddess with snakes) died; they venerated his grave (on Mt. Iouktas), from which he rose to become the deity of vegetation and fertilizing rain, which also assumed the bull’s image.

Many centuries later, the mythology of the Northern barbarian tribes (the ancestors of the Teutonic race) became the culmination of the myths concerning “the mortal god” of the Minoans and the woman’s authority over death. The Northern world is the world of death under the power of female deity: Freya – deity of love and beauty – is a personification of death. Ultimately, death will overcome gods: they are doomed to die in the final battle with the giants – embodiments of the powers of earth. The mortals are destined to fight along with their gods and to die with them. Finally, the serpent will destroy the Earth, because it incessantly gnaws the root of the tree, which sustains the Universe and penetrates all worlds: deities, men, and giants. Only one myth in the Elder Edda provides the glimpse of hope: after death of gods and men and after destruction of the present Earth under the black Sun, the new Earth and new Heavens ruled by “the One Beyond the Reach of Evil” will come to existence [Hamilton 300–302, 311–313]. Again, all the key–players are present: the tree, the serpent, woman, and death. This myth contributed to the foundation of the Nietzsche’s mythical philosophy – the component of neo–pagan cult, on which Nazism was developed.

This myth also explains why the ancient heathens ascribed to death the absolute power over life: they knew the reason of their destruction. The serpent that gnaws the root of the tree sustaining the Universe (the tree of life), can be identified with the ancient beast of the Genesis, which tempted men, triggered their exile from the original world, doomed mankind to death, and eventually, will be destroyed along with the world it pushed into corruption {Genesis 3:1–24; 2 Peter 3:7, 10–13; Revelation 20:2, 10}.  

The Minoans had the cult of a sacred tree: they worshipped a myrtle tree, which for them was the tree of death, because Artemis the Hanged One and Ariadne (a daughter of Pasiphae and one of the Cretan goddesses) hanged themselves on a tree, probably, as a part of death rites. The rites of the tree of death included hanging of wooden or clay dolls with pierced limbs. The Phoenicians modified this ritual: the Minoan myrtle tree became the wooden cross of the Phoenicians on which they initially crucified victims–substitutes for their rulers; later crucifixion became the main form of capital punishment for unsuccessful generals, prisoners of war, and criminals.

The Egyptians carried hanged puppets during the Dionysian festivals. According to Herodotus, the Egyptians borrowed this ritual from the Phoenicians.

It looks like all three civilizations follow the Babylonian tradition, which connects the tree with death: the tree of the knowledge of good and evil produced the fruit, which delivered suffering and death to humankind {Genesis 2:9, 16–17; 3:2–20}. The memory of the fruit of this tree (apple or pomegranate according to the climate and conditions of a particular land) underlies the Greek mythology; for instance,

–– the golden apple from the Garden of Hesperides – the Sunset/Far West gardens (that is the gardens of death), which were guarded by Ladon – the serpent with an ability to speak; the red apple was also an attribute of Aphrodite (originally, the goddess of death and fertility) and a symbol of king’s death. Red apples were distributed to the population before the rites, especially, when the king had to be sacrificed after one hundred cycles of moon, in the ninth year after the king’s enthronement (later, the “sacred” kings learned to avoid such a destiny by sacrificing the substitute – prisoner of war or one of subjects, sometimes, own child; after a special ritual of “re–birth,” they continued their rule)

–– Hera the wife of Zeus (Hera originally was the goddess of death) held in her hand a pomegranate – the fruit of death: a pomegranate tree sprang from the blood of Dionysus, son of Zeus when the Titans tore his body apart according to Hera’s order intended to revenge Zeus’ infidelity

–– Cora/Persephone (a daughter of Demeter – the goddess of fertility and agriculture) had to stay at Tartarus at least three months (winter, when trees and fields are fruitless), because in the gardens of Tartarus, she had eaten food of the dead – pomegranate seeds. Cora received the name Persephone the queen of Tartarus (the realm of the dead) after the main deity of underworld, Hades, kidnapped Cora, became her husband, and Zeus decided do not break the marriage.

For the Minoans, who shed blood of humans and animals in abundance, the color of blood – red – became the color of death. Consequently, many Mediterranean nations held the taboo on the red–colored food, which they sacrificed to the dead. (An interesting detail: the bolshevist and communist countries, which became the slaughterhouses for the significant part of their population, have red–colored flags and symbols.) 

The connection between the goddess with snakes and Eve is evident: those who established the Minoan civilization remembered the initial connection to God–Creator and the Eve’s role in destiny of men {Genesis 3:1–24}. The ancient myths concerning the tree and fruits of death (especially the apple from the Garden of Hesperides guarded by the snake who could speak) reveal how the imagination interprets prehistoric memory of the evil, which caused expulsion from the Paradise and brought death to mankind. The Phoenicians embellished this interpretation with the logical conclusion: they began to decorate the tree of death with the fruits of their civilization of the ultimate evil – humans dying in agony.

In general, the Minoan civilization is death–oriented; it embodies delusion and suffering of the mind, which accepted death as the reality of existence and worships death as to the main deity. The Minoan beliefs reflect the worst assumptions and associations the human mind ever was able to produce: dualism with such logical conclusions as the cult of death, supremacy of the beasts over humans, and necessity of the human sacrifice as the means to avert the anger of deified beasts.

From another angle of consideration, the dualism embodied in image of the goddess with snakes that holds the power over life and death, reflects the merge of two opposite visions of woman –

––– life, because of a body capable of reproduction (in the Minoan system of beliefs, an ability of reproduction is the power over life)

––– death, because of the mind, which lusts after the knowledge of good and evil in belief that this knowledge opens the way to become deity (that is the origin of death).

The logical consequences of such a vision include

a/ deification of the matter, e.g., Aristotle’s doctrine of the eternal uncreated and indestructible matter, which produced materialism

b/ misogyny, e.g., Plato’s social and political utopias, in which women are deprived of family life, motherhood, and any right, even to deliver a child without permission of the authorities, and Aristotle’s Oeconomics, which places women at the level of slaves and animals. 

Seemingly, the Minoan civilization was merciful to woman. Men’s imagination (wounded by pride, defiant, and fixed on non–acceptance of God’s punishment for disobedience) transformed the disobedience of woman seduced by the serpent into the reason for her deification. The woman who was deceived, exiled, and condemned to pain of childbirth, to slavery, and to death, became the goddess, which holds the snakes, thus, logically, should have the power over the main animal deity (the serpent). Women were given some liberties; they could appear at public events, possess wealth, influence decisions of kings and even rule with kings (for instance, as chief–priestesses) and kill and devour the king (or his substitute, (in the year of the hundredth lunation), etc.

However, this apparent humanity resulted in the most inhumane beliefs and actions: the Minoans

1/ put to death the fruit of a woman’s body (a child) as the sacrifice intended to appease deified beasts and to empower men

2/ defiled woman’s body by prostitution and bestiality rites.

Although the Minoan civilization became the logically complete reality of ultimate perversion with its inseparable companions – slavery and death of reason, the following generations imitated the Minoan arts and life–style, envied the Minoans’ unmatched (for their times) wealth and supremacy over the entire Mediterranean region, and incorporated their outlook and beliefs into own theological and philosophical doctrines.

The belief that human sacrifice would please the deity is the most terrifying inheritance of the Minoans. This belief could be born only within the heathen world without true knowledge of God. The ability to sacrifice a human being (especially, a child) demands absence of humanity along with the perverted values, which usually accompany degeneration of human nature and decay of the intellect. Sacrifice of a child for the sake of the others is the reality of societies, which consist from the beings that are lower than animals, because animals (including predators) protect life of their offspring even until own death.

The myth of Pasiphae reflects another deadly legacy of the Minoans: they used for deification of beasts the remnants of primeval knowledge of the mysteries of creation {in particular, that a human body, all living creatures, and the entire Universe have the same source of origin, although they all are different compositions–variations of the matter created by God – Genesis 1:1–27; 2:7; 3:20}. They recognized supremacy of the beasts over the humans, and then, assumed a possibility of unification of humans with beasts with the purpose of “elevating” human nature at the level of animal nature.

As it happens with all religions and all societies, which they control, the religious beliefs penetrated daily life and shaped overall development of the heathen societies: the mating of humans and animals infected the secular life. For instance, in A.D. second century, Apuleius mentioned two trivial episodes: a rich woman with lust to an ass, and a female criminal condemned to be thrown to the wild beasts, yet, before, to be mated with an animal (the ass) in the sight of the Corinthian population, at the arena [Apuleius].

The next part of deadly legacy of the Minoan civilization is the assumption of complete dependence of human being on their deities: a human being is an absolute slave of the deities, which in fact, are the products of human imagination. This attitude penetrates all myths inherited from the Minoans and underlies Homer’s The Iliad  and The Odyssey, which the learned Greeks (for instance, such as Alexander of Macedonia) knew by heart. Homer portrays the humans as the puppets of deities: the deities originate thoughts and control actions of men; the entire Universe is a big arena on which the humans live and die for amusement of deities. Later, Aristotle would define slavery as the “universal” order of the κοσμος and assert slavery as the “natural” foundation of human societies and all political, social, and religious institutions.

If to comprehend the ultimate truth, in particular, that all heathen deities are figments of human imagination, the Minoan civilization reveals itself as the greatest tragedy of mankind: the Minoan world is the realm of death in which phantasms rule the actuality and the lifeless idols are fed with human blood. This realm man created for himself with the logic of insufficiency – the logic of death*3*, and in this realm, man cognized the ultimate evil – slavery of the mind, that is the death of reason. In this realm of death, man lives by the law of death: he is born by a slave, lives as a slave, procreates slaves, and dies as a slave.

The consequent civilizations, which absorbed the Minoan legacy, also became embodiments of the law of death, firstly, because they are fruits of the dreaming mind poisoned by false knowledge and living by phantasms and, therefore,  incapable of free thinking.

From such a point of view, the Socrates’ definition of slavery as “the death of reason”

–– becomes almost improbable insight into the essence of the heathenism; improbable because it is professed by man who is not supposed to know the truth, which makes men free, and who chose to die as a slave under the power of the laws, created by the society of slaves to control the slaves

–– looks like a myth – one more utopia born by Plato’s mind, which imagined freedom in the same fashion as it imagined the realm of deities full of forms–ideas whose thoughts and deeds Plato the philosopher “knew” and made known for his followers. 

The Minoan civilization left the logically completed imaginary world of death, which although imaginary, demands blood of real living human beings. In this world the main deity is death, and its embodiments – statues of beasts and deified living beasts – are fed with human flesh and blood. The Minoan system of beliefs discloses the logic of death and facilitates understanding of the heathenism as the realm of death, which accommodates perversion, degeneration, and death of human body and mind.

The logical foundation on which the Minoans’ beliefs evolved and their civilization reached its summit and destruction, includes

–– assumption of a possibility of cognition of the nature of things by their material parameters and manifestations; otherwise, the belief in deified beasts and sacrifices before the stone/gold/wooden statues would not be possible

–– assumption of a possibility to define the nature of things by the parameters and manifestations of the matter; otherwise, the Minoans, for instance, would not practice magic and observe the rituals and rites of worship during which humans wore the masks and skins of beasts and presented themselves as embodiments of their bestial deities.

The Minoans’ legacy includes the following features and traits (1 through 8); some of them still might be traced in the life of contemporary societies.

1. Deification and worship of the beasts with the consequent

–– assumption of the supremacy of animal nature and recognition of superiority of the beasts over the humans

–– admission of a possibility of sexual unity of humans with the beasts for the sake of unification of human and animal natures because of assumption that human and animal “flesh” are compatible, and fusion of the human body and animal would elevate the human nature at the higher level – the level of beasts. The inferences from this assumption include cannibalism and sodomy. The logic behind this assumption:

 

blood of humans and blood of animals has the same color
and sustains life of flesh of humans and animals

humans eat animals and live; animals eat humans and live;
animals eat animals and live;
so, humans can eat humans and live;

therefore,

if every kind of flesh prolongs existence of another kind of flesh,
all kinds of flesh are the same,
or at least, are compatible
.

 

Following this logic, Hippocrates (~460–377? B.C.) – “the Father of Medicine,” began to practice vivisection of animals with the consequent expansion of his observations on humans. Since, and even today, the medical and biological sciences follow his example. Annually, the legions of laboratory rodents and other animals end their existence in tortures and suffering, because researchers use them for experiments intended to study and influence the human nature under the assumption of a possibility to find in animals the causes of incurable human diseases. In fact, this practice is the present–day form of sacrifice on the altar of false beliefs; it is a confirmation that the contemporary science is the direct heir of the heathen death– and idol–worshipers; and it has the same effect that all pagan rites of worship have: nothing good or helpful for human beings.

For instance, although rodents and other laboratory animals and their transgenic modifications provide plenty of “discoveries” in the human nature and human diseases for the researchers, although they became the model for studying humans, although they are used for development and testing medical drugs intended for treatment of humans, ––

–– none of the official purposes of the research (e.g., eradication of cancer and other lethal diseases) has been achieved

–– many drugs have side effects, which are worst than the original disease

–– the overall physical and mental health of the population might be evaluated by the enormous spending on health–related products and services as well as by the deterioration of quality of life, social instability, drug and other addictions, crimes, suicides, and other problems of the contemporary societies.

It looks like blind acceptance of the heathen beliefs and their derivative – heathen philosophy, fear deeply engraved with thousands of years of human sacrifices, and centuries–old traditions have deprived the contemporary inquiring mind of the ability of comprehension the human nature and human dignity. The mind of some researchers became incapable of logical thinking and therefore, understanding that

–– animals, fish, birds, and humans have different “flesh” because they exist at the different levels of complexity

–– any combination or mingling of human and “other flesh” is unnatural and will not result in true knowledge of the original nature – of humans as well as of animals.

2. Identification of the prime deity with the serpent and other beasts or identification of the serpent as the attribute/companion of the main deity, therefore, making improbable reconciliation with God for those who accept any part of the Minoan legacy.

3. Completed deification of evil by accepting dualism as the belief that the good and the evil have the same source of origin and that the good and the evil are the universal and equal forces, which define the fate of the entire Universe and the fate of each of the creatures within the Universe.

4. Belief in the absolute power of death, even over the main male deity, and as the inference, the all–inclusive cult of all–powerful and all–controlling death with the mandatory rites of human and animal sacrifice.

5. Belief in a possibility to appease the deities with death of living beings – humans (children, women, and men) and animals.

6. Unification of the religious and secular authority in a person of “sacred” king–priest, who expanded his power over the realm of the dead, therefore became a prototype of the deified ruler who is presumed to possess the absolute power over body, mind, and soul of his subjects.

7. Creation of myths and oracles (precursor of propaganda) as the means to comprehend the will and nature of deities, as the means to establish the foundation for the political and religious institutions, and as the means to influence the actions of the subordinated conquered nations.

8. Use of divination as an ability to over–stimulate imagination and to re–focus the mind on creation of false knowledge of the realm of gods, the realm of men, and the realm of animals. Divination is based on the artificially evoked (and afterward inherited) insanity; only insanity allows admission of belief in a possibility of self–identification with the beasts and such manifestations of this belief, for instance, as devouring of raw human and animal flesh and sodomy.

Later, obviously following these assumptions, Aristotle discovered the “eternal indestructible matter,” and made the deified matter the core of his theological, philosophical, and political constructions. From the Aristotelian concept of eternal deified matter, the materialism sprang with such its fruits, for instance, as Marxism.

Will Durant refers to the Minoan civilization as to “the first link in the European chain” [Durant 21], although the insufficient knowledge of the Past enshrouds the actual beginning of this chain. If to see the Minoan civilization as the beginning, one thing is certain: the mankind began its assent to humanity from the very depth of bestiality.

Centuries later, the priests, diviners, and philosophers began to re–tell the Minoan myths and rituals with the language of philosophical symbols, infuse humane philosophical concepts into them, and cover with them the secret mystical teachings, which use the symbols of the material world to describe the spiritual life of soul.

However, any analysis, any consideration, any search for anything valuable in the heathen past of humankind should be conducted with the comprehensive understanding that any ritual, any belief, any assumption, any rite, any cult, any religion, which either demands human sacrifice or denigrates the human nature, is not able to contain any humane doctrine, to produce any humane thought, and to contain any truth concerning God and man, whichever symbolic–mystical–philosophical–etc. interpretations are provided.  Probably, such understanding might be seen as the only justification of the memories of Minoan civilization.

Although technical attributes, clothing, customs, manner of life and communication, and other features of daily life changed with time, for all consequent civilizations, which assumed the Minoan legacy, especially their logic, the core of the imaginary worlds remained the same: during the next five thousand years, each new generation created a new circle of Inferno on the Minoan foundation.

 

Phoenician Civilization

 

The Phoenician civilization [e.g., in: Graves; James; Markoe; Polybius; Servadio; The Oxford Companion to the Bible; The Sunset Knowledge; and the others] emerged about 2750 B.C., when Tyre was founded; and ended in 146 B.C., when the Romans destroyed Carthage and spread salt on its grounds to make the soil barren and to prevent re–population of the land; the peak of wealth and prosperity lasted from twelfth to fifth centuries B.C.

The Phoenician civilization shares the roots with the Minoan civilization. If to follow the myth, the Phoenician civilization might be called the sister–civilization of the Minoans: Phoenix (an eponymous ancestor of the Phoenicians in the Greek mythology) was a brother of Cadmus and Europe. “Phoenix” means “red,” and for the ancient pagans, red was the color of death: the myth defines the particular expectations concerning the Phoenician world.

According to the Bible {Genesis 9:20–27; 10:6, 15–20}, Sidon, a son of Canaan, became an ancestor of the Sidonians, who later were called the Phoenicians. Canaan was a son of Ham and grandson of Noah. Canaan was cursed for the sin of Ham against his father, Noah: he was destined to become slave to his brothers and relatives. Definitely, the curse of Noah has the meaning deeper than physical slavery, because the Sidonians/Phoenicians assumed the power over the sea after the Minoan civilization collapsed and, during some time, were known as the richest nation of the Mediterranean region.

Spreading from the land of Canaan, the Phoenicians settled in Northern Africa and colonized Anatolia, Levant, Cyprus, and other islands. Their skills in naval expeditions, trade, wood and ivory carving, manufacturing of dyed clothing, embroidery, gold, metal, and glass works were unsurpassed in their times. The survived clay, gold, and bronze statutes and ivory figurines illustrate the outstanding craftsmanship. King Solomon employed the subjects of Hiram the king of Tyre to make artifacts of gold, silver and other metal and fabrics and carving works for the temple in Jerusalem {2 Chronicles 2:1, 3–14}.

However, the figurines and statues identified as images of the Phoenician deities have vicious and ugly faces and malformed bodies.

Contrary to the archeological evidence [e.g., in: James 43;], some researchers assert that it was the Phoenicians who invented the alphabet and writings [e.g., in: Servadio 3, 75]. So, plenty of texts should be discovered. Yet, besides business and temple records and inscriptions on tombs, this civilization left practically nothing; there in no written documents, tablets, scrolls, scripts, etc., which would reveal the foundation of cultural and intellectual life. After the Punic wars and destruction of Carthage by the Romans in the second century B.C., the Phoenicians’ cultural and intellectual life perished; with time, they were almost forgotten. The references to them might be found only in the Holy Scriptures, the Assyrian chronicles, and few works of the Greek and Roman authors – the scarce and hostile mentions left by the Hebrew Prophets and priests, scribes, and philosophers of the Mediterranean nations, with which the Phoenicians conducted commerce, waged wars, and among which they lived and vanished. Probably, the adverse silence of the Past explains why the published studies of the Phoenician civilization are less numerous than those of their ancient Greek and Egyptian counterparts. Still, there is another language – the language of deeds, which might convey the essence of the lost civilization.

In their time, the Phoenicians were famous for their divination, magic, maledictions, and superstition; they were known as the corrupt, brutal, and conniving people. The morals and ethics of their rulers might be inferred from the Bible’s description of Jezebel the Phoenician princess. Jezebel was the wife of Achaab the king; she re–introduced the cult of Baal in the Promised Land and became the most hatred woman in the history of Israel. Elijah the Prophet predicted that as the punishment for her ruthlessness and treacherous behavior, dogs would eat her flesh; so, it had happened as the Prophet said {3 Kings 16:29–32; 20:1–26; 4 Kings 9:29–37}.

The Phoenicians invented the capital punishment by crucifixion; they crucified their military leaders who lost their battles, some prisoners of war, and the criminals who “did not deserve” to be burned in the belly of their bull–headed deity.

The Phoenicians employed paid mercenaries for the land wars, yet, only the Phoenicians could be sailors, enroll in the naval troops, and become generals and other military leaders. They were the most skilled and ruthless kidnappers, slave–traders, pirates, and merchants. The ancient hypocrites held them responsible for introduction of luxury and greed into the post–Minoan Greece.

The works of the Greek and Latin authors allow conclusion that the Phoenician civilization had the unique political structure: it was the conglomerate of independent, yet, similar cities–states and their colonies, which spread all over the Mediterranean shores. The Phoenician cities–states were the self–sufficient and self–reproducing systems; nevertheless, the colonies sent their tribute to the mother–cities – initially, to Sidon and Tyre, then to Carthage (after Alexander of Macedonia conquered Sidon and Tyre in 332 and 330 B.C.).

From all strategies, which might be found in the history of mankind, the aggressively seeking total domination power and wealth Phoenicians developed the most successful strategy of expansion and assimilation of other nations.

Phoenician civilization was spread by human “cells” – the families, which carried the seed of civilization – religion and outlook; slowly, yet irreversibly, it assimilated–consumed the Mediterranean nations. The newcomers built settlements in new lands, began trade and manufacturing, penetrated all circles of the societies they were able to penetrate, and exploited all opportunities of influence they could find. Ultimately, the rooted families established the bases – the centers, which sustained the further expansion and assimilation, and the new wave of migrants moved to other lands. 

The overall process of Phoenician expansion reminds the spread of cancer through metastasis: self–reproducing systems (carcinogenic cells) root themselves into the tissues and blood vessels’ walls and modify them; then, they begin to extract and consume the resources of the host for own development; then, they produce new active cells carrying the attacking DNA. These killers penetrate other organs and tissues; eventually, they transform the normal flesh of the host into the malignant tumor – conglomerate of perverted/modified cells living by death of the host.

Polybius left a description of Carthage – the Phoenician main center in the time of its decline, not long before the ultimate destruction; he writes that the original Phoenician political institutions were similar to those of Sparta and Rome, yet, they became corrupted. For instance, the politicians obtain offices with open bribery (the Romans punished by death such entrepreneurial efforts). The ordinary people have the “supreme” influence on the state affairs; such kind of democracy Polybius considers as one of the reason of decline, because in Rome, “the best men” made the state decisions.

It looks like the Phoenicians were business people indeed: they transferred to their deity the periodical duties of their sacred king (to be murdered and sacrificed). Probably, because the permanent political structures had to pursue enrichment and expansion of the settlements without interruptions and complications inevitable for the establishments, which undergo frequent replacements of leaders. As the matter of fact, the Phoenicians had the most advanced (for their times) social and political order tailored to the purposes of expansion and accumulation of wealth. Two political institutions were responsible for life–maintenance in their settlements: the Senate and the People’s Assembly (the ancient republican style). The municipalities with the annually elected officials supervised their cities. The Phoenician women had the right to own and to bequest the property; the slaves were allowed to marry, to offer sacrifices, and to buy own freedom.

The Phoenicians had lunar calendar; the main festivities with human and animal sacrifices were connected with phases of vegetation e.g., harvest, and New Year. As the Minoans, they believed in death of the deities. Josephus and Lucian [ref. in: Markoe 117–120] describe the annual celebrations in Tyre and Byblos: the priests burned a male deity in effigy and then, celebrated its re–birth through marriage with Astarte, which absorbed many features of the Minoan goddess with snakes. This rite symbolized the yearly cycle of vegetation and restoration of the cosmic order. 

The Phoenicians’ religion might be interpreted as the cult of fire: they ascribed to fire the power of purification. The rite of burning people as sacrifice to their deities was intended to purify the population and the land. The human sacrifice was maintained “by decree of the people.” Suicide by jumping into the pyre was recognized as the road to immortality. Those who died by ordinary death were condemned to the realm of eternal fog ruled by the goddess of darkness indifferent to suffering and prayers of men; in this world of eternal alienation, the dead had to wander alone in the fog, unable to find the way to light.

Two main rites characterized the essence of the Phoenicians’ civilization for the other Mediterranean nations – their contemporaries: death and prostitution. The Phoenicians burned their children (especially the first–born fruits of “sacred” prostitution) as the sacrifice to the male deity, and condemned their daughters to prostitution as the sacrifice to the female deity; the male prostitution also was the part of the Phoenician reality.

The special group of population – professional clergy headed by the king (chief–priest) and queen (chief–priestess) – performed the service of deities, offered sacrifices, and oversaw the population. The temple personnel included priests, permanent male and female prostitutes, butchers, and “sacrificer.”

In fact, the “sacrificer” was an executioner: he cut throat to the victims, drained blood, and put the victims into the hands of the idol from which they felt into the blazing furnace hidden in the idol’s belly. Sometimes, the sacrificers placed the victims with bound feet and faces covered with special masks at the open brazier under the hands of the idol and cremated victims in the sight of the worshippers. Cleitarchus describes the idol with the hands outstretched over a brazier, on which a child was burnt.

When Ezekiel the Prophet conveys the warning of the Lord concerning destruction of the Ammonites (who had the rites similar to Phoenician rites), he describes the common rite of human sacrifice: they are the food of the fire and their blood remains on the ground {Ezekiel 21:28–32}.

The Phoenician pantheon included idols adopted from the Greeks, the Egyptians, and other surrounding nations; two main deities led the hierarchy of idols in all cities and settlements:

–– Moloch or Baal – the flesh–thirsty deity of fire and drought  – was made as a bronze statue of man with the head of a bull (similar to the Minoan Minotaur) and outstretched hands; the sacrifices – children, adults, and animals were placed into the hands of the idol and rolled down, into the blazing fire burning within the belly of statue

–– Astarte/Balaat/Tanit – deity of life, death, fertility, earth, and underworld; as soon as girls reached the child–bearing age, they had to become the temporary prostitutes at Astarte’ temple and to sell their virginity as the sacrifice to Astarte; only after they performed their service (and the priests of Astarte received payment) they were allowed to return home and to be given into marriage. 

The ruins of temples and chapels do not contain images/statutes of Phoenician deities: there are empty thrones and the betyls – standing stones or “divine markers.” Some architectural details are covered with images of the “sacred” serpents and solar disks. Some researchers ascribe to the Phoenician religion aniconic tradition, as in Byblos [Markoe 125]. However, the assumption of aniconism cannot be reconciled with the sacrificial rites performed before the bronze statues of Baal/Moloch. Probably, the empty thrones in the temples, as well as the exceptional place of the fire in the system of beliefs, might be interpreted as the remnants of the memory of God Who has no image and form; in this case, the statutes Baal/Moloch in the places of sacrifice could symbolize the ruthless earthly powers over the cursed men.

The following examples illustrate the Phoenician piety [Servadio 97; Markoe 66; Diodorus ref. in: Markoe 133]:

–– when the Greek army threatened Carthage, the noble families sacrificed own children in an attempt to secure survival of the city: in 306 B.C., two hundred children, and in 310 B.C., five hundred children were burned – almost all new generation of the Carthage “nobility” was exterminated by own parents who explained the siege of their city with the wrath of their deity, because previously, instead of their own children, they sacrificed children purchased from the poor

–– after one of the victories, three thousand prisoners of war were burned as the token of appreciation for the assumed assistance of the deity.

Archeological excavations at the place where Carthage was situated led the archeologists to conclusion that sacrifices of children increased in the last centuries before ultimate destruction: if in the seventh century B.C., animal sacrifices prevailed (an animal could be substituted for a child), three centuries later, burials contain mostly children’s bones. According to an estimate [Markoe 135], in the fourth–third centuries B.C., it was about twenty thousand urns with the remains of burned infants. Obviously, the Phoenicians made the significant “progress”: the increase of victims reflects the accelerated self–annihilation. 

The philosophical foundation of the Phoenician civilization and the rationale behind the Phoenician religion cannot be found in the written documents – they did not survive. Seemingly, there is no information sufficient for understanding why their beliefs, which other nations held to be inhumane and repulsive, attracted even the Israelites who already were given the Law and knowledge of God and who were well informed of the Canaanites’ genealogy and the curse of Noah*6*.

The Phoenician history provides two clues about the logic behind their religion:

–– they identified their main deity with fire

–– their inferno was eternal blinding fog

–– they have a particular attraction to maledictions.

The belief in a possibility to purify the people and the land by burning human sacrifices – especially, the first–born – might be interpreted as an attempt to erase the curse of Noah. Noah cursed Canaan for the sin of his father – Ham; Sidon – the first–born son of cursed Canaan became the ancestor of the Phoenicians who sacrificed children as atonement for the sins of the parents. The particular attraction to maledictions suggests that, definitely, the Phoenicians knew the burden of the curse. The belief in the realm of fog and alienation, which expects all who died by natural death, allows assumption that mothers of sacrificed children could find at least some comfort by imagining that their children who “passed the fire” are given the Eternal Bliss.

There is no reasonable explanation of “sacred” prostitution besides

1/ the referred above assumption of an attempt to curb and control the rites of the female deity, which the Phoenicians could borrow from the Minoans

2/ the blame put on Eve for the original sin and consequent suffering of mankind.

Another detail also should be considered if comprehension of the ancients’ logic is wanted. The ancient tradition ascribes to the first–born child a particular significance as to the heir and main descendent of the family’s legacy. For the Phoenicians, however, the first–born children were the carriers of the curse, the fruits of the “sacred” prostitution to which they condemned their daughters, and as the descendents of the unknown men, the first–born were not welcome in the husband’s household. From such a point of view, the inhumane ritual served preservation of familial inheritance, yet, imposed the unspeakable humiliation and suffering on woman.

The Holy Scriptures provide an explanation of the Phoenician history: the Book of Wisdom refers to the native inhabitants of the Promised Land (including, mainly, the descendents of Canaan) as to the cursed from the beginning, merciless murderers of children and devourers of human flesh, as to those with the inborn malice who would not change their thinking, and who, in their self–deceit, worship the loathsome beasts {Wisdom 12:3–6, 10–11, 23–24}. Obviously, the curse of Canaan included the curse of corrupted imagination: his descendents made idols and worshiped ruthless deities–figments of own imagination willingly, by sacrificing living human being.

Wherever the Phoenicians settled, they carried with them their religious rites: it means that they burned their children and condemned their daughters to prostitution voluntarily. Obviously, the Phoenician priests had developed means of persuasion and abilities to make their beliefs logically justified and acceptable for the mass population. For instance, although the Roman Empire destroyed the Phoenician civilization and abolished the inhumane religion in the second century B.C., still, four centuries later, in A.D. second century, the population of Northern Africa (Tunisia) secretly continued ritual infant sacrifices [Tertullian ref. in: Markoe 136].

Indeed, the curse of Noah entailed the worst kind of slavery – the slavery of the mind incapable of free thinking, therefore, incapable of discrimination between good and evil: the descendents of Ham lived and died in the darkness of inhumane religion of self–annihilation, which even during the ruthless times of heathenism made them the subject of hatred and aversion.

On the other hand, this aversion does not seem to be logical: the Phoenicians achieved the completion consistent with the essence of the cults practiced by other nations. In particular, all surrounding nations offered human sacrifices – men, women, children – to their idols. The Phoenicians included own infants in a pull of sacrificial offerings (along, for instance, with the state offerings in a case of prisoners of war) and allowed the families to make their decisions: the family decided would it sacrifice a particular child, would it offer an animal instead of the child, or would it buy a child of a poor family to sacrifice instead of own son. Probably, the difference was in something else; probably, only in details: pious worshipers from other nations offered other people’s children; the pious Phoenicians offered their own children (at least, delivered by women who were the members of the family). It means that – if to assume that a civilization is the particular manner of life based on the particular imaginary world – ultimately, the family was the seed of the Phoenician civilization as well as the main carrier of the curse of Canaan.

The Phoenician civilization became one of the greatest achievements in the unending spiral of the anti–evolution: it has a particular significance, because it reveals the potency of evil imagination and its power over the actuality of the societies, which are not protected by true knowledge of God and ideals of humanity.

The prophecy of Ezekiel the Prophet concerning the Ammonites describes also the destiny of Phoenicians, which is similar to the fate of their human sacrifices: they were given into the hands of the cruel people proficient in destruction (the Macedonians and the Romans), they became the food of the fire, their blood remained on the ground, and there would be no memory about them {Ezekiel 21:31–32}. Indeed, the Phoenicians’ fate is obliteration; their main cities were demolished by Alexander of Macedonia (who slaughtered the population of Tyre in 332, and Sidon in 330 B.C.) and by the Roman Empire during the Punic wars (Carthage in 146 B.C.); the majority of population was exterminated. Today there is no one written document, which would disclose the life of the Phoenician mind and justification or at least, explanation of the Phoenicians’ beliefs.

The Phoenician civilization was condemned to the destruction and oblivion not only because it was the enemy of Rome: the Phoenicians were doomed because of the scale of evil they cognized and embodied into their religion, culture, and daily life. The survived memories of the Phoenicians’ deeds allow conclusion that their knowledge of evil was absolute as much as it is possible for human mind to reach the absolute knowledge, and this evil was embodied into life of a family, which is the foundation and the pledge of survival of the society, state, and civilization.

Somehow, by intuition or by the memories, which their ancestor Ham brought from the pre–Flood world, the Phoenicians have penetrated the essence of evil: they created the patterns and strategies that still are unsurpassed by intensity of evil. Probably, that is why they were able to invent the crucifixion*7*.

The Phoenician civilization introduced the main problem of the philosophizing – dreaming – mind and reveals the consequences. The philosophizing mind makes own logic universal, imposes own perception of the world on the realms of which it knows nothing, and with fantasies–figments of imagination influences actions of the living. For instance, it creates the inferno and the paradise of the after–life according to reflections of life within the visible world of the matter (e.g., the contemporary successors of the Phoenician civilization send suicide–bombers to kill in the name of their religion and promise them the paradise in which they will have all their earthly desires, including possession of virgins, fulfilled).

Although no written Phoenician legacy exists, by their main invention – crucifixion and by their religion (especially, by the vision of the after–life), the Phoenicians convey essence of their civilization: death of man enslaved and debilitated by evil, agonizing under the curse of evil, and deprived of any hope of salvation by the blinding fog of ignorance and slavery.

  

Egyptian Civilization 


The Egyptian civilization [Chaeremon; Plato Timaeus; Gilbert; Graves; Herodotus; Budge (1987) and (1988); The Sunset Knowledge; and the others] lasted from 3000 through 332 B.C., when Alexander of Macedonia made Egypt a part of his empire. Although the Egyptian civilization is one of the oldest civilizations, the Europeans discovered it only in the nineteenth century, after the Napoleon’s conquests: the Egyptian influence on the Western civilization is not direct. Egyptian knowledge penetrated other sources, mainly, the Greek heathen philosophy, works of the Arabian and Asian authors discovered during the Crusades and brought in Europe by the Crusaders.

Egyptian priests and scribes of pharaohs recorded knowledge learned by travelers, warriors and diplomats (for their time, the priests–advisers of pharaohs developed one of the most successful of all known ancient intelligence services) and knowledge created by other nations. The temples’ records formed the core and the main treasure of the Alexandrian library, which was one of the seven wonders of the Ancient world. Because of relative tolerance to the alien customs and alien gods developed during military conquests, religious, political, commercial, and cultural communications, Egyptian deserts became the refuge for thinkers and different–minded identified as the heretics (in the relatively recent Past, among them, for instance, were the Gnostics, the Manicheans, and the Early Christians).

The survived descriptions of communications among the Chaldean, Egyptian, and Greek priests, mariners, and merchants confirm the mutuality of religious knowledge as well as influence of the Egyptian civilization on the religious matters (especially, after the Minoan civilization vanished).

The Egyptians made themselves disciples of the Chaldeans to obtain the access to the astronomical data, because the original Egyptian records had been destroyed by the Nile flood. With time, Egypt became some kind of a depository of knowledge for the contemporaries and their descendants.

For instance, after the Unknown Ages following destruction of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations, the Greeks found in Egypt the local version of the Minoan legacy – the “old” knowledge that Solon learned from the Egyptian priests. The Egyptian priests wore the garments of the Minoan fashion similar to those, which the Orphic initiated accepted for their rites. The vine cult and the rites of orgiastic worship as a form of group ecstasy came in Egypt, Pharos (Pharos was the Cretan island – the part of the Minoan territories), and India from the same source: according to the myth, Dionysus traveled in Egypt, Pharos, and India to enlighten the population.

In addition, Herodotus (480 B.C. – 430~424 B.C) writes that the Dionysian festivals in Egypt and Greece are almost the same and that the Egyptians know almost all Greek gods; so far, he mistakenly ascribes the source of this knowledge to the Phoenicians, because Homer and Hesiod composed their Theogonies only four centuries before; Herodotus also asserts that the Greeks know nothing concerning the time and place of origin and the forms of their gods.

However, Herodotus was well–known for his inability to differentiate between truth and myth and for his inclination to follow (and to repeat) the popular opinions; the contemporaries granted Herodotus nickname “Father of Lies” mentioned by Plutarch in his work On the Malice of Herodotus. Thus, Herodotus’ works might serve only as indirect confirmation of the developed connections of the Egyptians and their influence on the ancient world.

The core of the Egyptian civilization consisted from two subsystems: the remnants of true knowledge and its distorted projection – man–made religion crafted to achieve the definite worldly purposes. True knowledge in a form of secret sacred knowledge was in possession of the information elite: priests and their apprentices – philosophers and the rulers; the dream worlds of man–made religion served as the means to control the manner of life of the mass population and to maintain social stability.

Two religious systems co–existed in the Ancient Egypt – monotheism and polytheism: monotheism was the secret religion of the elite; polytheism with all the deified beasts and flocks of nation–wide and local deities was reserved for the ordinary people.

Monotheistic religion venerated the creator of the Universe worshiped in image of the Sun. Initially, the monotheistic religion carried the remnants of primordial – true – knowledge of God; with time it was modified or distorted according to the delusion of priests–diviners and needs of their apprentices – rulers. Eventually, Egyptian monotheism focused entirely on the visible celestial body – the Sun and became ordinary heathen religion.

Polytheism was a conglomerate of cults of deities created by the Egyptian priests and borrowed from the earlier civilizations; the essence of these cults and their influence on life was the same as in all other ancient civilizations: the imaginary worlds populated with phantasms and figments of human imagination controlled the actuality and stipulated life and death of men. Along with the pure phantasms (e.g., invisible gods of the chaos and of the after–life), the Egyptian religion included the real objects – the planets and the beasts, and mythical derivatives, such as men–beasts. The religious system, designated for the main population supposed to control life of ordinary people, thus

–– to facilitate the manageability of the society

–– to preserve stability of the social structures

–– to prevent dissemination of knowledge, which could lead to freedom of thinking, thus to possibility of unpredictable behavior of the subjects and to social and political instability.

It might be said that the Egyptian priests developed the art of creation of the particular knowledge intended to keep the population under control; they established the highly structured, hierarchical, and aimed to be unchangeable society with the deified ruler on the top; they began to develop the art of propaganda. Although the ancient Egyptians imagined their civilization as a mighty living pyramid moving through the chaos of times, realms, events, and worlds, in fact, they built the conglomerate of cages organized by a degree of deprivation – deprivation of freedom and deprivation of knowledge. The stratification was accomplished by limitation: what is not allowed to do and what is not allowed to know. Those who learned knowledge forbidden for the group of the society to which they belong, were executed: usually, they were fed to the deified beasts or left to die from thirst and hunger within the sphinx or other big statues, which pragmatically–thinking priests used as prisons or execution chambers. The status, in which a human being was born or, in some occasions, placed, has a corresponding level within the realm of dead, although the Egyptians believed that good behavior improves the quality of the after–life.

As soon as the comprehensive knowledge of the Phoenicians does not exist, the Egyptian priests–diviners entered the human history as the first (perhaps, because their predecessors are hidden in the unknown Past) philosophizing theologians for whom “everything is symbolic” [Chaeremon Fragment 15D 27]. With their methods of allegorical interpretation of the sacred for them myths, the Egyptian priests elaborated the practices of the Minoans and Chaldeans, and through the Orphics, transferred their legacy (the database of mythical assumptions and doctrines along with the methods of application and rules of composition of new “knowledge”) into possession of the Greeks.

 

The Orphic Doctrine


So, the Egyptian priests, who fervently philosophized in their temples, elaborated the practices of the Minoans and Chaldeans, and through the Orphics, transferred their legacy into possession of Greek philosophers.

With the knowledge received from the Egyptian diviners, the Orphics compiled the secret theological doctrine of the “divine absolute animal“ –  the dragon–serpent–beast (obviously, the symbol of the ancient creature that tempted and deceived Eve), which exists within the “absolute everlasting time.” This “absolute” and “eternal” time of the Orphics is the “perfect wholeness,” which issues forth and accommodates interaction of two opposite forces: the passive chaos or infinity and the active whirlwind that fashions chaos into the “cosmic egg.” The great serpent encircles and impregnates this egg. The impregnated egg bursts to reveal the Orphics’ prime deity – another serpent called “the divine” or “absolute” animal.  This “absolute” beast contains all forms of the living creatures, changes its own form according to some “laws,” which the heathen myth–makers invented for explanation of the cosmos and the forces of nature, and possesses the absolute power over the worlds of gods, humans, animals, plants, as well as over the Hades – the world of the dead.

Although the original Orphic doctrine was based on the Minoan mythology, the resourceful minds of the diviners reflected the specifics of their society: decline of the power of woman, establishment of the patriarchal society, and widely spread homosexuality and bestiality. The result was substitution of the egg (also the symbol of the reproductive power, yet, without a direct visible link to woman) for the female deity. The Orphic cosmic egg coiled with the serpent (which brings forth their deity–“absolute animal” invested with snakes and images of the wild beasts) took place of the Minoan goddess coiled with snakes and worshiped as the mistress of the wild beasts.

Invention of the deified universal serpent–beast made possible numerous cults of animals of all kinds and especially, provided the justification of sacrifice of human beings to the beasts, because the ancient diviners characterized the human nature as the inferior to the bestiality of animal “gods.” The basic logic of idol–worship is based on the assumption that if the supreme deity is the beast with wings, tails, paws, bull heads, etc., those in the image of beast are the superior creatures.

The Orphics believed that they are the descendents of Orpheus – a priest of the Sun/Apollo and a diviner who practiced arts and who established the mysteries–rites of Apollo in Thrace and of Demeter in Sparta. Orpheus evoked wrath of Dionysus and Aphrodite because he did not participate in Dionysian rites, explained evil of human sacrifice, and propagated homosexuality. Dionysus sent the Maenads in the temple where Orpheus preached to men of Thrace – Maenads’ husbands. In the state of frenzy, the Maenads murdered their husbands and tore Orpheus apart –“limb from limb.”

Another version of the myth portrays Orpheus as a founder of the Dionysian rites and an earthly embodiment of Dionysus.

In general, the Dionysian rites are the wildest of the known rites practiced by the ancient population of Greece; some researchers even find similarity between the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Thraco–Phrygian cult of Cybele [e.g., in: James 98]: the participants enter the state of frenzy, in fact, insanity, in which they lose any resemblance to thinking and human being.

Orpheus suffered death similar to his deity’s adventures: the Maenads tore the body of Orpheus and scattered the pieces of his flesh over the ground as the Titans tore the body of Dionysus the son of Zeus. Dionysus attempted to avoid death by transforming himself in a serpent, then into a lion, then into a bull (such a transformation suggests connection of Dionysus with “divine absolute animal”), yet, the Titans eventually killed him and from his blood the pomegranate tree appears, which became the food of the dead. Orpheus was killed without any transformation, in image of man.

Eventually, Orpheus was recognized as a founder of the Orphic doctrine. The Minoan rite of devouring a child, as well as other Minoan rites, became the part of initiation rites for the Orphics, yet, after initiation, they were forbidden to eat any meat of any kind. Some sources suggest that the Orphic philosophers devoured a bull–calf, not a boy: the sequence of Dionysus’ transformation in the hands of the Titans suggests the eventual substitution (if any) of a bull–calf for a child. However, if to take into consideration the origin of the Orphic doctrine and the logic of death, such a spark of humanity becomes improbable: a bull–calf would not suffice; a sacrificial victim also had to be either a human being or at least a serpent, which was the Orphic prime divine image. Indeed, 

– in Orphic cosmogony, the prime bestial deity – serpent*8*  appears from the cosmic egg coiled and impregnated by the arch–dragon/serpent; the bull is just a part of the whole, although the set of “sacred” animals–forms manifested within the “absolute animal” (and the before–death transformations of Dionysus) includes a serpent, a lion, a bull, and other wild beasts; each animal is identified with a particular deity and it is not used as a substitution for another animal

– the Orphics have no ground for identification of a bull with their all–inclusive “absolute animal” – it would be degeneration of their pretense on the absolute dominion over the world, which they asserted because of their worship the “absolute” – that is all–inclusive – beast; besides, the original version of Dionysus was a horned serpent, not a bull

– the logic of death, which is based on the over–stimulated imagination and symbolical thinking resulting in particular cruelty of the heathen rites of bestial worship, demands the full completion of evil that only death of a human being could bring

– in the Mediterranean region controlled by the Minoans and their descendents, the mandatory rites of cannibalism complemented the human sacrifices; without them, the rites of worship (and especially, the mysteries of the initiated) were incomplete

– the Holy Scriptures describe the native inhabitants of the Promised Land as the unholy people who practice sorcery and during their mysteries (orgies) slaughter their children and devour raw human flesh and blood {e.g., Wisdom 12:3–6}. 

Through the rite of devouring a child, the Orphics expected to be unified with their prime deity and to achieve the divine qualities, therefore, to become deities. Although later the Orphics were recognized as “the most sophisticated and humane philosophers of the pagan Antiquity,” their flesh–devouring rites equate them to the primitive cannibals. Even if in the late Antiquity a bull–calf indeed took the place of a child in the initiation rite, the initiation still meant ritual (even if symbolic) murder of a living human being and devouring of the raw flesh. Therefore, in their essence,

a/ the Orphics are the same as all other cannibals and pagans

b/ the Orphics’ philosophical assumptions do not differentiate from the doctrine of bestiality sustaining the Dionysian rites.

The Orphics’ reality does include human sacrifices and consuming of flesh and blood of the victims; therefore, the Orphic philosophy is inhumane as well as all heathen doctrines based on the cult of death are inhumane.

It should be noticed that with development of logic, the Orphic thought came to conclusions that

1) all living creatures are the embodiment of the same “absolute animal”

2) humans are in the last place of the chain of living creatures; therefore, humans have no right to take life of “the highest beings” – animals and beasts.

Consequently, the latest generations of Orphics excluded killing of animals for consuming of their dead flesh or as sacrifice to gods; then, they rejected slavery, wars, and suffering of men and animals as the means to establish the prosperous societies and achieve progress in any of human activities. Such apparent “humanization” is the reason why some early Christian theologians mistakenly disregarded the actual connections of the Orphic rites and the rites of death worshipers, and why some researchers still attribute human traits to the Orphic doctrine and revere it as the zenith of the heathen philosophy. The influence of Orphic doctrine might be traced in all heathen cults and doctrines which sustain the contemporary atheistic and neo–heathen systems of thought.

Some researchers perceive the Orphism as the source of the “divine Muse of Homer” and of the “sublime theology” of Pythagoras and Plato [e.g., Thomas Taylor qtd. and ref. in Hall (2003) 74].

The Orphic theological assertions reveal the actual foundation of Plato’s philosophy, especially, the concept of forms–ideas–archetypes, with which he evidently, followed Pythagoras (who was initiated into the Egyptian–Eleusinian–Orphic–other mysteries, and asserted that all material objects have forms as their essence): indeed, if the main – universal or “absolute” – bestial deity contains the forms of wild beasts why it cannot accommodate the forms of all other creatures and objects, which compose the Universe?

Consequently, if to substitute the philosophical “essence–idea–form” for the Orphic “image,” the ultimate meaning of Platonism (recognized as the pinnacle of philosophical thought) is revealed as a set of phantasms – the irrational imaginary world of heathen cults of serpent. The wordings covering the essence of Platonism and issuing doctrines should not conceal the true meaning: the heathens (for instance, the Minoans, Phoenicians, Orphics, etc.) who made this imaginary world into actuality of their daily life, worshiped the “divine absolute animal” – the serpent and their prime deity conceived by the cosmic arch–serpent/dragon – by devouring children, and in this imaginary world, humans are the beasts made after the image of their bestial deities.

The Orphic doctrine [Graves; Hall; The Sunset Knowledge] became the foundation not only of the Greek heathen philosophy; it also sustains Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, theosophy, and many other cults and assumptions, including those developed within the framework of the Western civilization.

For instance, with the Orphic logic, Manly P. Hall not only infers supremacy of the “philosophy’s God” over “a personal God”; he refers to this doctrine as to “theology,” which cannot be destroyed and which “in a more philosophic era…shall shine forth again with splendor undiminished” [Hall (2005) 218, 224]. Indeed, this “undiminished splendor” of Orphic myths identified as “philosophy” and “theology” still “shines” through the contemporary sciences*9*.

However, in spite of all elated word–pouring of exited admirers of dream worlds of heathenism, it should not be forgotten that in order to practice their “life–oriented” mythical philosophy of “undiminished splendor,” the Orphics had to undergo the inhumane rites of initiation (with devouring and consuming raw flesh of a human child), and to worship their serpent–beast/“divine absolute animal,” and that is when the actual essence of Orphic doctrine – death and perversion – reveals itself.

There is a text in the Holy Scriptures, from which we can infer that the actual essence of the Orphic doctrine and issuing cults were well known. Isaiah the Prophet refers to those who trust in vanities and speak emptiness: they hatched eggs of asp (horned viper), and those who would break their rotten wind–eggs find basilisk in them {Isaiah 59:4–5; Ωα ασπιδων ερρηξανκαι ο μελλων των ωων αυτων φαγειν,συντριψας ουριον, ευρε και εν αυτω βασιλισκον  – Isaiah 59:5; basilisk  –– βασιλισκον  – is the mythical derivative of the serpent, the monster with deadly breath and glance, which kill the living beings}. The Prophet mentions main components of the Orphic “theology” –  snake (asp, or horned viper; the original image of Orphic Dionysus was a horned serpent) and encircled egg with the death–carrying serpent within.

Then, the Prophet {Isaiah 59:7–10} reiterates traditional portrayal of heathens deprived of the knowledge of God, therefore, of wisdom and abilities to discern and perceive the essences – while they wait for light, the darkness is originated over them {εγενετο αυτοις σκοτοςIsaiah 59:9; similar to the punishment by perceivable darkness, which enveloped the Egyptians – και  εγενετο σκοτος  γνοφος – Exodus 10:21}; their creations are similar to the spider’s web unsuitable for use; they expect enlightenment, yet, walk in confusion. The producers of asps’ eggs are deprived of vision, have no judgment, conceive troubles, bring forth lawlessness, and contemplate murder; they are swift to shed blood; they feel at noon–day as at midnight: they are as the blind who feel wall.

The profound meaning of Isaiah the prophet’s observation become evident if to recall that for the Orphics, the act of breaking the Orphic egg symbolized highest spiritual achievement [spiritual return into the state of absolute, or nirvana of Oriental mysteries – in: Hall (2003) 177]. In its entirety, the Prophet’s text conveys the essence of heathen “mysteries”: they are conceived by death, they are useless, and they culminate in death of those blinded by deceit – those who perceive death as life, figments of imagination created by insanity of philosophizing diviners as spiritual food, and confusion as enlightenment.

Indeed, the Orphic doctrine is deadly as the poison of the venomous viper is: similarly to the snake which looks in the eyes of its victim and paralyzes it until reaches and consumes victim’s defenseless body, the false knowledge paralyzes the mind and keeps it under the spell of death of reason until death of body comes at the allotted time.

The Orphic doctrine sustains Plato–Aristotle’s philosophy, which embodied the heathen vision of the Universe and the “ideals of humanity” into the chain of most destructive concepts:

 

slavery as the natural foundation of the society

man as a part/property of the community

supremacy of the good of the community over the good,
happiness, liberties, and interests of a person

mandatory restriction of the freedom of thought and religion,
control and regulation of the life of members/citizens
as the means of survival of the “perfect” community–state

termination of the different–minded
as the legitimate practice of the community–state,
which has to protect itself from the wrath of deities by expulsion or execution of
atheists, followers of another cults, and different–minded of any kind,
therefore, by sacrificing life and well–being of its members–men
for the sake of the good of men’s establishment.

 

With philosophical doctrines and utopias compiled by Plato and Aristotle, the Orphic myths eventually penetrated Western and some Eastern philosophical and theological doctrines with the only exception: the Greek Orthodox Christianity (until it follows the original – orthodox – Christian dogma *10*).


 


The Main Fruit of the Ancient Philosophical Thought: Heathenism

 


The ancient Greeks left the most elaborated heathen cults and philosophical doctrines, which still fuel the contemporary philosophical thought, and the Orphic ideas still might be traced in the political, social, and religious foundation of the contemporary societies.

Logically, in theory, it would be proper to assume that philosophy, as the crown of civilized human thought, advanced along with development of mankind.

In actuality, philosophy sustaining the contemporary establishments is no different from the philosophy on which the empires of the heathen Antiquity were built.

For instance, in the 1930s, English philosopher Alfred N. Whitehead (1861–1947) referred to the European philosophy as to “a series of ‘footnotes to Plato’” [qtd. in: van Winden 124].

Plato’s mind worked within the general framework created by the predecessors; through Plato’s doctrines, some part of philosophy of Ancient – heathen – Greece became the foundation of the contemporary civilization. So, the first subject of consideration should be the foundation: the philosophical doctrines created by the Plato’s predecessors.

Similarly to the Egyptian priests–diviners philosophizing in temples, the ancient Greek thinkers created and maintained two bodies of knowledge: 

1/ for the mass population, the mob; this domain of knowledge was intended to support stability, order, and prosperity of the social and state structures; within the heathen civilization, this knowledge provided the platform for creation and implementation of political theology and its offspring – the set of common simplified symbols, political and social rules intended to fashion common perception, opinion–making, and social behavior (with time and development of the states and their controlling structures, this set evolved into the mass culture and propaganda)

2/ for the ruling elite – the “sacred” knowledge of the initiated (priests, philosophers, and their apprentices – kings and other rulers); this knowledge sustained the systems of control and maintenance of the societies intended to provide the desirable manner of existence for the ruling elite.

The knowledge of the initiated determined the outlook and became the backstage for the vital political decisions made by the ancient rulers – emperors, kings, and their advisers and educators: priests and philosophers. This knowledge included the foundation – philosophical and theological doctrines, and the derivatives – beliefs, customs, morals, laws, rules, practices, methods – intended

  a) to protect superiority of the ruling elite, to manipulate the general population (the mob), and to sustain the social stability and the political order through establishment of the “absolute” power over the subjects

  b) to control the entire society and all social groups (slaves, slave–owners or so–called “free citizens,” as well as members of religious and political hierarchies) in the most efficient way – by controlling their religious beliefs, therefore, by controlling their conscience, morality, and behavior

  c) to expand the sphere of influence over other nations and to continue the conquest of new territories with the purposes to obtain additional resources – more slaves, more gold, more grain

  d) to achieve the ultimate goal – to obtain global power over the world.

The knowledge of the initiated was unavailable for the general population; it was strictly guarded, especially, in Asian countries. For instance, if an ordinary man even accidentally overheard the conversations of the temple priests or other members of the initiated elite, he was executed without mercy: the hangmen poured the boiling silver into his throat. Consequently, today, without access to the secret archives (if any) there is no possibility to determine its contents. However, many systems of knowledge and methods of their design can be inferred from the results of their application–embodiment into the social or state structures, the laws, politics, and ethics. 

In summary, the foundation of Greek heathen philosophy includes the remnants of the true knowledge (the primordial knowledge of God–Creator and His creations – man and the Universe, which existed before the Babel confusion of languages) contaminated with the false knowledge born by imagination of priests, philosophers, and temple diviners during the alternative states of mind – divination, ecstasy, hallucinations, etc. Through philosophical doctrines of Plato and his followers, the imagination of ancient pagans continues to influence the current civilization.

For instance, in the twentieth century, a notion of a philosopher as the dreamer who “dreams extraordinary things” and the modernized heathen cult of philosophizing Dionysus became the foundation for Nietzsche’s philosophy and its offspring – Nazi ideology. In 500 B.C., about twenty–five centuries before birth of Nietzsche, Heraclites referred to Dionysus as to “the god of death”*11* [Heraclites qtd. in: Bevan 140; Nietzsche §292, §295 144, 146]. The recent Past, – the Nazism and the World War II – illustrates the fruits of the ancient cult of death, which was embodied into philosophical and, then, into political, social, and military doctrines of Nazi Germany.

Philosophers, theologians, and researchers suggest two probable sources of origin for Greek theology and philosophy: revelations of God given through the Hebrew Prophets, and mythological theology of Egypt. In particular, Alexandrian Jewish exegete Aristobulus (100 B.C.) asserts that Pythagoras, Plato, Socrates, Orpheus, Hesiod, Homer, and some other Greek philosophers and poets derived their knowledge from the Books of Moses [Aristobulus ref. in: Mansfeld 71–72]. According to Augustine, Plato could learn teachings of the Hebrew Prophets during his journey to Egypt and the Mediterranean [Augustine The City of God against...VIII, XI  3:51–55]. Yet, Plato writes that Solon learnt the “old” knowledge from the Egyptian priests who preserved all knowledge and called the Greeks “children” because they do not have the old traditions and knowledge of the Past [Plato Timaeus 22a–26a]. Some contemporary researchers suggest that the Greek philosophers, especially Pythagoras, borrowed their philosophical and theological knowledge from the Magi (the priests of ancient Persian pre–Zoroastrian religion) and the priests of Egypt [e.g., Gilbert 35, 49–50, 66, 77; Ehrhardt 38–39], and even the names of Greek deities and rites of worship have the Egyptian origin [e.g., Burckhardt 333].

To the contrary, initially, the Egyptian priests worshipped the ancient Greek goddess (probably, the equivalent of the Cretan Moon–Io) who, as they asserted, granted them the alphabet, arts, and sciences. The Egyptian priests received their “old” knowledge from the Minoan civilization – the precursor of the Greek civilizations, which could inherit the system of knowledge that existed before the Babel confusion of languages. The original knowledge of the pre–confusion civilization formed the core of the pre–Platonic Greek philosophy preserved by the mysterious order of the Keepers of Truth, whose influence might be traced in the Chaldean civilization and in the human–oriented philosophical schools of the ancient world [The Sunset Knowledge]. It became the sacred knowledge of the Minoans who supplemented it with own assertions created according to “the traditions of men,” that is with dreams and beliefs composed by imagination. Then, the Egyptian priests inherited the Minoan mixture and made it the basis for their sacred and secret doctrines.

The concepts of the Minoan civilization penetrated deeply in the very fabric of ancient philosophical thought and shaped the foundation of the chain of civilizations (including the current Western civilization), empires, states, and societies, yet, they have the foundation incompatible with Judaism and Christianity. All the arguments, which connect Moses the Prophet and his writings with the Egyptian symbolic mythology, dissipate, if to read the Scriptures. For instance,  

1/ Exodus 33:13–17; 34:9–17: Moses implores God to reveal His ways, so Moses would be able receive the knowledge and to obtain the mercy of God. God answers with a promise to accompany Moses and to allow him entrance into the peace of God. This text confirms that in the beginning, with all knowledge, which Moses received in Egypt (as it is asserted by Philo of Alexandria and his followers), Moses was ignorant in true knowledge, which opens the way to God

2/ Exodus 25:12–18; 32:1–36: while Moses was with God and received the Law written by the fingers of God, the people worshiped the Egyptian idol; they reverted to the Egyptian knowledge, which is the knowledge of the idol–worshipers, consequently, they were found incapable of accepting the true knowledge of God and had to perish. Obviously, the knowledge of the Egyptians is not compatible with the knowledge granted by God, and Philo of Alexandria*12*  had false assumptions and made wrong assertions

3/ the Book of Hosea {Hosea 11:1–4; 13:2–6}: the Prophet conveys the words of God that He loved His children – Israel – and summoned them from Egypt, yet, they departed from the presence of God and worshipped the idols, while they must have no gods and no savior besides God. Again, the Prophet reiterates the incompatibility of Egypt, the land of death, with the path of life that Israel was chosen to claim.

In the referred above texts, the presence or absence of God does not mean the results of physical movement to or away from some point at which man conducts physical rituals of worship – reads the prayer, kneels, etc. The human mind is always before God: until the mind exists, this connection is unbreakable by the very design. The “departure from God,” which the prophets perceived as death, means change of the focus when instead of God, the mind accepts the temporal settings, attributes, and fantasies of the material world – for instance, the idols – as the actuality or meaning of the existence.

However, the richness and elaboration of pre–Plato philosophy confirms that he Egyptian mythological theology cannot be the exclusive source of the Greek heathen philosophy. It should be also another source of knowledge, which made the ancient Greek philosophy the most advanced and comprehensive system of thought in the pre–Christian history.

Even in its worst version (that is political–civil theology of theaters manufactured by poets and philosophers for the mass population) the Greek philosophy retains the specific apparent  life–oriented vision of the world, which still enchants thinkers.

For instance, in the sixth century B.C., the priests of the Apollo’s sanctuary in Delphi already promoted an idea of necessity to live in harmony with the universal laws that sustain the life of the world, and two greatest poets of ancient Greece – Pindar (522?–443? BC) and Aeschylus (525–456 BC) made their contribution to the theological thought:

  –  Pindar popularized the Delphi’s oracle (which also was used to sustain the main values and to strengthen the unity of the Greek world)

  – Aeschylus disclosed some concepts of the mysterious Eleusinian cult: the purpose of each man is to obtain the unity with the Universe and with the people of all races and nations. The unity in harmony activates the inner vision, which allows mind to escape the limits of fate and to become the creator of own destiny and destiny of those who are connected [e.g., in: Sherrard 87–88].

The remnants of true knowledge of God, with which death disguises its true essence, explain the attractiveness of Greek heathen philosophy; the illusion of truth and the natural love of the mind to the truth are the reasons why many generations of thinkers perceived dreams of death as the breakthrough of the human intellect into the realm of divine.  

In general, the religious and philosophical vision of the ancient Greeks differs from the common mythological religions, especially, from the ancient Egyptian cults, perhaps, in the same degree as the shining air of temples of Greece penetrated with the sunlight differs from the darkness of the secret passages leading into a pharaoh’s tomb within a sealed pyramid.

For instance, the Egyptian concept of preservation of dead body (mummification) as the pledge of desirable manner of the eternal life not only enslaved mind and encaged it within the world of the dead matter; it transformed man into a slave who has to serve his earthly gods unreservedly to earn the privilege to continue his service within the eternity.

To the contrary, the Greeks learned to die with a smile, cremated bodies of the fallen heroes (to return the human body into the energy that had created it and to preserve it from decay inconsistent with the sense of beauty), kept them in memory beautiful and full of life, and allotted them places among the stars and galaxies.

Another example: the pre–Plato elite promulgated the ideas of universality and limitless ability of any man (who belongs to the elite)  to dominate over own destiny, while any Egyptian was born into the strictly structured world in which he has no right to leave/change the assigned to him level of the social and religious hierarchy.

The developed trade and other lines of communications among the Mediterranean nations provided opportunities to learn knowledge and customs of partners, rivals, and neighbors. In the contemporary terms, it might be said that the Mediterranean region possessed the comprehensive alloy–database of philosophical and theological concepts developed by all nations connected into the inhabited world. In the beginning, this world was dominated by the military and organizational might of the Minoans, and in the end, by the power of Greek philosophizing mind: it was the time of initial tests of globalization. Greek pagan philosophers had contributed many concepts to this “database.” From another side, philosophers and diviners (priests, and poets)  of other nations derived from the common database the notions intended to enforce the control of the mass population and therefore, to protect the social and state stability.

Therefore, it might be concluded that the overall development of the philosophizing mind proceeded in two directions:

1. The remnants of true knowledge of God before, throughout, and after the Babel confusion of languages and all consequent divisions, distortions, and modifications were overrun with The Ten Commandments and other ordinances of God: the ancient Israelites became the exclusive keepers of wisdom and knowledge of true God. Even before The Ten Commandments, the Egyptian elite, which took the great pride in own knowledge and asserted itself as the ruler of the universe, has to learn the art of survival from the Hebrew slave – Joseph the Righteous {Psalm 104(105):5–22}.

Although Joseph was betrayed by his own brothers, falsely accused by his Egyptian owner, and imprisoned for the crime he did not commit, he became the actual ruler of Egypt and the teacher of governance and survival. Ultimately, Joseph enslaved the Egyptian population (with exception of the priests) that preferred slavery to death from starvation, deprived them from the possession of the land they toiled, and established taxes on all they produced (it was an interesting payment for Joseph’ initial slavery and tribulations: it established the long–lasting pattern, which might be discerned even in the contemporary politics). Then, wherever God’s punishments placed the Israelites, they carried with them their knowledge, which sometimes was accepted by their temporary conquerors and neighbors. Besides, the truth has the special attractiveness: many seekers of the truth openly came to Judea in the quest of wisdom and received knowledge they desired {Genesis 37:1–35; 39:1–23; 40:1–23; 41:1–57; 47:13–26; 3 Kings 10:1–9; Psalm 104(105):17–22; Daniel 5:11–17; Acts 8:26–39}.

2. Gradually, the remnants of true knowledge became increasingly contaminated by polytheism, phantasms, and other figments of imagination. The political purposes, for example, such as the necessity to unify population into establishments capable to protect own manner of existence, including life and well–being of its rulers as the main priority, forced the initiated to develop the mythological theology, which accommodated religious and ethical needs of the majority of heathen population and secured social stability of the state.

In the contemporary terms, the mythical theology might be defined as the shared artificial world (similar to the contemporary virtual reality), which distinguishes the particular groups of people and simultaneously confines them within the man–made boundaries of thinking, therefore, preventing them from any possibility of changes of the conditions of their existence and development.

During the period from the sixth to first century B.C., Pythagoras (582–500 B.C.), Xenophanes of Colophon (570–480 (?) B.C.), Anaxagoras (500 (?)–428 B.C.), Protagoras (480–410 B.C.), Parmenides (450 B.C.), and other Orphics’ followers created the philosophical concepts and logics, which still serve as the actual basis for many general and specific concepts and definitions of the modern sciences.

The doctrine of Xenophanes of Colophon provides the most convincing and elaborated doctrine of the cosmos among those created during the history of heathen philosophy: his world exists as a static plenum of the One, and nothing that contradicts the One is capable of existence; his poetry includes the remnants of true knowledge of God, and many idealistic and materialistic constructions of Plato, Aristotle, and Stoics have their origin in Xenophanes’ verses.

Anaxagoras profoundly influenced the Greek philosophical thought with his (adopted from the Orphics) vision of Νους – the Intelligence, the active principle that creates the world from the passive matter. The Intelligence controls the Universe, penetrates, and orders all things, yet it does not join the material objects; only a human soul is able to be united with the Intelligence [Plato Cratylus 413c; Ehrhardt 70, 72–75].

The concept of Νους, which introduces the idea of the intelligent Universe as the creation and domain of the universal Intelligence–Reason, resulted in recognition of wisdom and knowledge as the greatest values and the source of power. Consequently, the purpose of human existence was defined as cognition of “the heavens and the whole order of the Universe,” or, according to the Aristotle’s down–to–Earth interpretation, life became valuable “for the sake of some kind of knowledge” [Aristotle Eudemian Ethics I.v.9 213].

Pythagoras elaborated the Orphic concept of forms (with which the Orphics’ arch–serpent is filled) into the entire cosmos: all material objects have forms as their essence. He propagated beliefs into immortality and reincarnation, invented numerology and vegetarianism.

When Pythagoras rejected the Orphic doctrine of spiral evolution*13* (because of its impracticality for the slavery–based societies), he elaborated the model of a wheel as the natural foundation of the universal order and chained the soul to the cycles of reincarnation. Pythagoras compiled his doctrine as the alloy of the Egyptian mythology, Babylonian astrology, Persian dualism, and Brahmanism [e.g., Sherrard 83–84; The Sunset Knowledge].

The Pythagoras’ notions provided the foundation for the different secret doctrines of the prominent philosophical schools of the Antiquity. The Pythagoras’ version of the Orphic doctrine opened the door for the consequent inhumane concepts of Plato and his followers.

The secret doctrines, which have their source in the Pythagoras’ concepts, possess some common traits; for instance, they must be strictly guarded from the majority of population, and they are based on numerology – the simplified description of the world, which ascribes to the numbers – 1, 2, 3, and so on – the potency to symbolize the entire universe, including the Creator. Through Philo of Alexandria and his followers, these doctrines crawled into the Christian world; then, they shaped the Neo–Platonism of Plotinus and Porphyry (the second–third centuries) and eventually, infiltrated works of the Western theologians. The Greek heathen philosophy, Philo’s modifications of Judaism, and the ancient secret doctrines compose the core of the philosophical–theological system, which unified plenty of sects, doctrines, and concepts under the name of Gnosticism*14*.

Gnosticism penetrated doctrines of the philosophizing theologians, including Origen, and originated many heresies, which might be recognized through the inseparable distinctive marks – the contempt of human being, denigration of the human nature, and prohibition to make knowledge available for all population.

Another significant concept – the concept of the Middle Way – has the roots in the ancient doctrine of transmutation of the opposites. The assumption of transmutation of the opposites descends from the primordial knowledge about universal complexity of the divine creative energy that originates water as well as fire, the Earth as well as the Sun, the apparent abundance of life at the Earth, as well as the apparent void of the Space, and so on. It states that all is changed with time, and the opposite transforms itself into its opposite: the good becomes the evil, and the evil becomes the good. Thus, to prevent increase of the evil, men must always follow the middle way between the good and the evil [The Sunset Knowledge]. The echo of this concept could be found in

 

the Aristotelian arithmetical ethics

pseudo–knowledge based on presumption of
unity, struggle, or transformation of the opposites
(for instance, Marxist dialectics)

the notion of the good as the source of the evil
(for instance, Aquinas’ theological assumptions)

the assertion of conflict/struggle/war as the basis of human evolution
(for instance, Darwinian concept of evolution)

the concept of ethics–free sciences.

 

       

The practice of deification of a ruler illustrates the work of the doctrine of the opposites: from one side, the ultimate – or absolute – slavery and powerlessness of many; from another side, assertion of the absolute power or deification of one. Still, it fuels the pretence to the absolute power and ability of global domination by man (for instance, the pope) or by establishment (for instance, a world–wide empire).

Within the Greek realm of gods (into which the fruitful imagination of our ancestors placed Νους, the world soul, forces of nature, trees, rocks, rivers, fate, necessity, transcendent beings, stars, etc.), a distinction between deities and men was subtle: any mortal could become a deity. The divine origin, transcendent force, and immortality were accepted as the traditional properties of deities. Ethics and intelligence of men had no significant difference from their deities (the real distinction was in the access to the power and the means to maintain immortality).

For instances, the very cooperative gods of Homer put man at a particular position (in fact, in the center of the cosmos): the weak and limited in his abilities as man is, nevertheless he might be asked to judge gods and even become the immortal himself by his heroic actions or by outwitting his deities.

Initially, the poets deified heroes who possessed extraordinary power of body and soul; later, they reserved the possibility of deification only for the rulers who possessed the power of physical coercion over the others.

Ultimately, the power of physical coercion became the traditional attribute and the main reason for deification of all rulers, for instance, such as Alexander of Macedonia, Roman emperors, popes, party bosses of the totalitarian – e.g., communist and fascist – states, and other leaders of the religious and political establishments. This kind of power is asserted through the suppressive structures, weapons, prisons, rules and laws regulating acquisition and limits of wealth, limits of physical and other freedoms, and punishment for deviations.

Deification of man is the inseparable feature of the heathenism, because it provides the level of psychological comfort necessary for survival and development within the hostile world, which lives without mercy of God. Within the heathen societies, only few absolutely fearless minds realize that something might be impossible (as becoming true deity), unavoidable (as death), or unreachable (as immortality of a human body within this time–space–complexity–matter–bounded Universe). The majority needs at least some portion of psychological comfort, even if it is obtainable only with self–deceit and illusion. Deification of man provides such a comfort: the deified man claims the alliance with gods, believes in own power over the hostile and volatile world, asserts the right of dominion over the others (therefore, releases the others from responsibilities for their thoughts and deeds), and serves as a role model whose achievements, in theory, anyone could repeat.

However, self–deification is not possible without belittlement and humiliation of all the others; these two contradictory assumptions are the inseparable features of the same phenomenon: false knowledge of God and its inference – false knowledge of man.

The practice of deification––belittlement of man illustrates consequences of the false assumption of a possibility of the unity of the opposites; it explains acceptance of ideologies, cults, and contemporary versions of old heathen beliefs. People seek the way to escape from the infernal actuality by creation of imaginary worlds with manageable deities – who sometimes are inhumane and cruel, yet always predictable, reliable and comfortable because of their definiteness. So, if the believers play by the rules, they are entitled to at least some portion of goods, psychological comfort, etc. 

The logic of majority arranged into a family–tribe–polis under the authority of father–elders–ruler demanded existence of the main deity responsible for the orderly existence and supervision of all other deities: monotheism continued to exist within the heathen societies as the familiar although uncommon phenomenon.

For example,

– Antisthenes (444–365 B.C.) recognized existence of one god in nature [Antisthenes ref. in: Cicero I.xiii. 32]

– Amenhotep IV, who ruled Egypt in 1374–1358 B.C. [Trager 7–8], attempted to replace Egyptian polytheism with the monotheistic religion of the Sun

– Athenian court’s death sentence mentions that Socrates does not recognize gods accepted by the state: he introduces new deities. Indeed, Socrates speaks about the deity, whom the Socrates’ pupils (Plato and Xenophon) do not name. Then, Plato’s Letters contain references concerning the secret knowledge precious like purified gold that should not be revealed to outsiders, and this knowledge is connected with the Maker of the Universe [Plato Euthyphro 3b; Letters II:314a–b; VII:341c–d;  Xenophon 68].

Although, as it could be inferred from Plato’s social, political, and religious assumptions, the main deity of Plato could be the only “universal” bestial deity of the Orphics, the Plato’s hints on the secret monotheistic doctrine became the argument for acceptance of neo–Platonism by Augustine and the source of heresies, with which Augustine and other lovers of the Plato’s fantasies polluted the Western theological thought*15*.

So, the question is: who was this main deity within the core of mysterious monotheistic doctrine, which left too many footprints in the concepts of Greek heathen philosophers to be excluded from the spectrum of ancient theological systems? Could it be exclusively the Orphics’ “absolute” serpent, which they worshiped through the bestial rites similar to those established in honor of Dionysus*16*, and which they asserted as the main deity–source of the comprehensive hierarchy of animals, deities, and living beings?

The natural universality of Greek thought allowed existence of many theological doctrines and assumptions; it preserved the remnants of pre–Plato philosophical and theological knowledge, although Plato–Aristotle’s inhumane religious–social–political utopia and founded on it philosophical, theological, and political doctrines gradually made the way into the main doctrines of the Greek heathen philosophy.

In the same time, the Greeks acknowledged existence of the unknown God Who is in no way similar to mortals either in body or in thought, Who perceives everything as the whole and its entirety, Who is eternal and One, Who controls and governs the Universe, which obeys Him “unfailingly and faster than thought” [Xenophanes of Colophon Fragment 23, 25 31, 33; Xenophanes of Colophon ref. in: Aristotle On Xenophanes 977a; Xenophon 193–194; Cicero  III.xxiii. 58; The Sunset Knowledge].

Three facts should be taken into consideration, if the right answer is wanted.

1. True knowledge of God never left the world; otherwise, the world would cease existence. This knowledge was preserved by the Adam’s decedents {Adam’s grandson Enos called with hope upon the name of God – Genesis 4:25–26}; this knowledge survived the Flood, and it was known before revelation of the Law to the chosen nation; it was carried by the priests of the Most High God, and only God Who they served knows His true servants. For instance, the Holy Scriptures have three references to the priests who possessed and guarded it:

        –– the priest of the Most High God Who created heaven and earth, Melchisedek king of Salem, blessed Abram and gave him bread and wine {Genesis 14:18–20}; therefore,

a/ the knowledge of the Most High God existed

b/ the mysterious unknown priests worshiped true God and kept His knowledge before Moses received the Law

c/ the priest Melchisedek knew the choice of God before the nation, which was destined to receive the Law and to meet the Messiah, learned her high mission

        –– David speaks of the Lord, the Son of God, Who is given dominion in the day of His power and in the shining splendors of the saints, Who sits on the right hand of the Lord until His enemies are made His footstool – He is the Priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedek; David, by the Holy Spirit, calls Him the Lord, and the Gospels convey the words of Lord God Jesus Christ, which confirm truth of David’s vision {Psalm 109(110):1–4; Matthew 22:42–45; Mark 12:35–37; Luke 20:40–44}

        –– St. Paul the Apostle explains that Lord God Jesus Christ is the High Priest after the order of Melchisedek: He is the Eternal Priest by the power of eternal life (ζωης ακαταλυτου –– life indestructible, indissoluble); the ordinances of men and the laws of the flesh do not determine this priesthood {Hebrews 5:1–10; 7:1–28}.

2. From all the nations, which were unified into the inhabited world dominated by the Roman empire, only the Greeks came to the Lord to find in Him the ancient God of their ancestors and to become new carriers of the divine Truth {John 12:20–23}: the Greek language (Koine) became the language of The New Testament.

3. When St. Paul the Apostle visited Athens and addressed to the Athenians in the middle of the Areopagus, he referred to the altar to the Unknown God Who Athenians worshiped; he explained that this Unknown God is the true God–Creator, for Him we live and move and are, for – as some Greek poets said – we are His offspring {Acts 17:21–34}.

  Therefore, it is evident that the ancient Greeks preserved at least some remnants of the original knowledge of true God, which originated the best – humane – part of the ancient philosophy: even diluted and contaminated with the false assumptions concerning the nature of God and His creations, the remnants of true knowledge of God made the ancient philosophical thought fruitful and attractive for all generations of thinkers.

At the same time, the monotheistic concepts of the ancient Creeks provided the basis for attempts of the philosophizing theologians to “reconcile” heathen philosophy (doctrines of Plato and Aristotle based on the Orphism) with Judaism and Christianity.

Philo of Alexandria and – in direct contradiction to the warning of St. Paul the Apostle {Colossians 2:8} – Origen, his followers, and some Eastern and Western Christian theologians and philosophers promoted the idea of the actual connection between the teachings of the Hebrew Prophets and Greek heathen philosophy, especially concerning similarity of the Greek myths about creation of the Universe and the Book of Genesis. They suggested the identical foundation, the same source of both systems of knowledge, or at least the direct influence or borrowing, especially in respect to the concepts of good, wisdom, knowledge, and law. 

After Philo of Alexandria*12*, Origen, and Augustine*17*, heathen philosophy and symbolism flooded works of the Western theologians. Illiteracy and the consequent irrational assertions of connection between the writings of the Hebrew Prophets and the ancient Greek philosophy allowed some Western theologians to accept heathen philosophy as the truth, utilize its vocabulary and logical methods. Their works demonstrate how the heathen imaginary polytheistic worlds contaminated the theological foundation of the European civilization. Ultimately, the addiction to heathen dream worlds resulted in substitution of the heathenism for the Christian dogma.         

However, the Christian Greek theologians recognized the danger of heathen philosophy; following the Apostle’s warning {Colossians 2:8–10}, they determined that Christian theology and heathen philosophy are irreconcilable.

In particular, contrary to Origen, Theodoret (a bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria, 393–460) argues that the Greek philosophers have very little in common with the truth of the Scriptures: they follow “the paths of falsehood” [Theodoret ref. and qtd. in: Mansfield and Runia 272, 276]. Theodoret’s work Therapy for Greek Diseases or Recognition of the Truth of the Gospel from Hellenic Philosophy  is one of the first serious attempts to purify the Christian Apostolic theology from contamination by the heathenism, which was committed through the wide application of heathen philosophy.

In the end of the eleventh century, in continuation of the efforts to preserve purity of the Christian dogma, the synod of the Byzantine Church resolved: any attempt to follow the “foolish opinions” of the ancient Greek philosophers in the matters of Christian faith is a crime (trials of John Italos, 1076–1077, 1082). The Greek pagan philosophers were recognized as the first heresiarchs from whom all heresies sprang, and it was determined that the “Hellenistic studies” might be admitted only in the secular matters. The verdict of the Byzantine Church crowned ten centuries of the struggle against heathen philosophy; it supplemented the decisions of the first–seventh Universal Councils with the exact determination of the Christian Church’s position concerning the heathen philosophers and their legacy: any admission of heathen philosophy to the theological studies is the crime against God and men*18*. 

Some heathen philosophers claimed that the Christians assumed the sacred doctrines of the pagan Antiquity. In particular, Celsus (the vehement opponent and critic of Christianity, the second century) in his book  Αληθης  Λογος  (True Word, or The Word of Truth) asserts that the “wisest nations and cities and wise men” possessed the true wisdom – knowledge of the ancient Logos, which the Christians made their own. Among the “wisest nations,” Celsus lists the Egyptians, Assyrians, Indians, Persians, and inhabitants of the ancient Greek island states. Celsus asserts that the Greeks also assumed wisdom of the others and elaborated it into the valuable practicable knowledge, which they “crystallized” into the Hellenism [Celsus ref. and qtd. in: van Winden 281–283].

Celsus obviously misinterprets the actuality: the original foundation of the ancient doctrines of Egypt and Greece (or the sacred knowledge of old civilizations) contains the distorted fragments of the true knowledge of God: there is nothing to borrow for those who possess the entirety.

At some point of times, the ancient rebels who were unable to heal the pain of deprivation of presence of God and exile from the Paradise, began to worship the serpent, the beast–embodiment of the arch–evil, who was murderer from the beginning {cf. in: John 8:44}. They ascribed the attributes of true God to the serpent, and this process was not different from dreams in which a sleeping man sees different combinations of the fragments of his daily life. Through the dream worlds of Egyptians, heirs of the Minoans, and the survivors of the collapsed Minoan and other civilizations, the ancient serpent–beast “crystallized” into “the divine absolute animal” of the Orphics as well as into the heads of many other “divine hierarchies”: worship to the ancient serpent–beast became the essence (apparent or hidden under the veil of secrecy that only the elite was allowed to penetrate) of religions and cults of the ancient civilizations of Mediterranean, North Africa, and Asia.

Contrary to Celsus’ assertions, the Christian teachings is the gift of the true knowledge of Λογος, the Word–God. Through Lord God Jesus Christ, the original knowledge of the nature of the world and of the nature of man was returned to His followers. Therefore any idea of any compatibility or any positive connection between Christianity and the heathen doctrines of the “wisest nations” is absurd: just recall such creations of Orphics as the orgiastic Dionysian cult*16*.  The only connection between the heathenism and the Holy Scriptures is the crafty brute of Genesis {Genesis 3:1–14}, the serpent, which the imagination of Orphics made into their arch–deity.

The knowledge of God revealed through the Hebrew Prophets and by the Word–God is incompatible with the artificial worlds of heathen theology:

 

 

Christians serve true God–Creator of life  –––

the heathens worship “the divine absolute animal,” the serpent–embodiment of death

 

Judaism and Christianity are established by God–Creator of life  –––

the heathenism is the product of evil imagination, which worships death

 

The Sacred Scriptures convey the revelations of God to His prophets and apostles ––––

the heathen theologies are assembled from figments of corrupted human imagination  
mixed with the bits and pieces of true knowledge.

       

 

If to apply normal – human – logic, it is not possible to find a reasonable explanation how the human ideals could be developed by those who worship the beast, even if they named it “divine absolute animal.” The answer might be found only with the logic of death that enters the minds, which are incapable of development and which, consequently, trigger self–annihilation.

From another point of view, it should not be forgotten that for the ancient philosophers and educated groups of the society, philosophy was a passion, delight, and the framework for the games of imagination, perhaps, similar to the virtual realities, science fiction movies, novels, computer games, and other shared artificial worlds of the contemporary people. In the Past, philosophy was some kind of password that opened the world of the thinking elite, yet, never the reality of existence. Ancient philosophical games became the source of innumerable theological and philosophical doctrines, sciences, social and political systems, which sustain the reality of anti–evolution based on the logic of death. Then, the destructive influence of heathen philosophy on the following generations of philosophers, politicians, and theologians might be explained with the tragic shift of the realities: the descendents accepted as the reality the dream worlds of philosophical games with which their ancestors amused and destroyed themselves. 

Many authors acknowledge the passion to new knowledge and universality of thinking of the Greeks – citizens of the cosmos without boundaries and limits, and suggest that Greek philosophy had laid the foundation for arts and sciences [e.g., Burckhardt 320; Charron 229; Shipley 190, 327–328].          

However, the main achievement of the Greek heathen philosophy is a demonstration of the unsurpassed creative potential of imagination; some authors recognize that; for instance, G. Watson writes that Plato is “a great imaginative writer” who employed imagination to produce his philosophical concepts, and insight – the recognized source of illumination of a philosophical mind – is merely φαντασια (fantasia) [Watson G. 208–217; qtd. 213].

The main fruit of ancient philosophizers is heathenism*19*. Hosea the Prophet grasped the essence of the heathen idol–worshipping society: its ultimate feature is the loss of humaneness and dignity in such a degree that humans become substitutes for animals, and animals are substitutes for humans: Θυδατε ανθρωπους μοσχοι γαρ εκλελοιπασι – “sacrifice humans, for sacrificial bulls have come to end (perished)” {Hosea 13:2}.

The heathenism is knowledge composed by the minds, which

––– separate themselves from the Creator,

––– live by illusion,

––– use imagination to interpret the reality and to arrange their dreams and figments of imagination into that what they present as “knowledge” of God and “knowledge” of the world.

In general, the heathenism is a collective name for the set of false religions, philosophical doctrines, symbolic realities and systems of knowledge created by the mind deprived of knowledge of God. The multitude of heathen theological and philosophical doctrines invented by philosophizing priests and their apprentices – philosophers defined in the Past and define in the Present creation, time–range of existence, and disintegration of any establishment in the fields of state–politics, society–culture, and religion–morality that is hostile to monotheistic theology (original Judaism and Christianity).

Under the cover of human ideals and false assumptions, which, in fact, are irreconcilable with the reality of existence, the heathenism penetrates the frameworks of the societies, disables their protective structures, and transforms the social/state/religious establishments into the malignant tumors of evil. Consequently, the heathenism might be likened to the cancer–causing virus, which attacks the immune system of human body and destroys the beings with insufficient self–defense.

Three deadly inventions of philosophizing mind sustain heathenism: heathen philosophy, slavery, and denigration of human nature.

The heathen philosophy justifies slavery and proclaims similarity, and even superiority, of animal nature over human nature.

Slavery of the worst kind is the foundation of the heathenism: man is deprived of his similarity to the Creator’s image and likeness and is subdued to the evil imagination that recognizes the beast as the main deity.

The human nature is assumed to be inferior in comparison with the bestial “deities”. Consequently, bestialization and cruelty of beasts take the place of virtues and humaneness.

In the temporal perspective, the heathenism is the accelerated decay of the intellect and disintegration of the life–protective structures of the mind, which are responsible for survival of man and human establishments:

 

the heathenism starts with human imagination

the heathenism is fed by human blood

the heathenism progresses through the destruction of men and their creations.

 

 

The point of no return, or the point at which the mind becomes unable to stop own degeneration and to turn to God, is deification of the idea or the establishment produced by men. For example, 

–– the pre–Platonic philosophers constructed theological doctrines, which downgraded the concept of invisible uncognizable God to the level of visible celestial objects, forces of nature, and the Universe; still their doctrines preserved some remnants of primordial knowledge and the ideals of humanity

–– the Plato’s doctrine became the next stage: it introduced the concept of “divine philosopher” and prepared the ground for deification of figments of imagination embodied into the men’s establishments. With deification of the consummated philosopher, it instituted the “perfect community” with the Nocturnal Council as the means to control the ordinary people’s beliefs and the manner of life. Although the Plato’s utopia propagated the openly perverted “ideals” of the inhumane “perfect community” with the class of guardians deprived of all human attachments and the Nocturnal Council – precursor of the Inquisition, the Plato’s followers continued to deceive themselves and their audience with the theoretical speculations concerning the good and the ideals of humanity, which they attribute to Plato’s fantasies

–– the Aristotle’s doctrine deified the matter, perverted the concept of morality by association of the virtues with physical pain or pleasure, and induced the worship to the establishments of men; it asserted slavery as the universal pattern and natural order of the society/state, declared divine origin of the state, and became the foundation for political theology and for ideologies of the totalitarian states.

The results of application of Greek heathen theology and philosophy reveal the danger of the heathenism. The history of mankind became the list of vanished civilizations, states, societies, and religions, which started up with the unreal worlds of heathen philosophy. Each of them, beginning with the empire of Alexander of Macedonia and concluding with the majority of the totalitarian (e.g., communist and fascist) states of the twentieth century, had disappeared after causing death and suffering of countless human beings. The history confirms warnings of the Hebrew Prophets: idolatry pollutes the earth and begets the curse, which strikes idol–worshippers with disgrace, madness, premature death, and destruction {Deuteronomy 11:26–28; 28:1–68; 30:15–20}.

 

 

Conclusive Remarks

 

In summary, the heathen philosophy is the set of the rules and methods with which the ancient philosophers set up the shared dream world of philosophical and theological games (e.g., interactive theology created and modified by philosophers and poets); they

– elaborated the language (philosophical and theological terms and allowable definitions) and rules of the games (classic logic)

– described the settings (the multi–deity world)  and the rules of maintenance and preservation (termination or exclusion of the authors who without permission of their teachers and rulers produce concepts, which modify a particular shared world intended to sustain a particular political order; for instance, when they introduce new deities or change the adopted common assumptions about the nature, creation, and structure of the world and their innovations do not sustain existing order or intervene with the purposes of the ruling/controlling group)

– determined the boundaries of the admissible sets/subsystems (limited quantity of the cognizable by thought deities with the definite responsibilities for maintenance of the shared world).

These games – the heathen philosophy – originated the social and political doctrines, which still define the life of contemporary societies, arrangement and functioning of the states, subjects and methods of sciences.  

For instance, the Stoics attempted to apply the laws of reasoning toward cognition of the Future. In the attempt to penetrate the mystery of the Future, the Stoics used two kinds of knowledge: the knowledge of diviners and the knowledge received through a synthesis of observation and conjecture resulted from the logical reasoning. Their vision of the Universe as an embodiment of the Intelligence led them to the inference: the Universe has the order – the fate. The Greeks had the ancient deity – Fate to which they ascribed the universal power: within the realms of men as well as within the realm of gods, no one was able to change the destiny allotted by Fate. Yet, Chrysippus describes Fate as the “physical order wherein one thing is always caused by and results from another, in such a way that this interrelation cannot be changed.” The Stoic causality concept sustains the contemporary forecasts and theories of prediction.

In general, the Stoic philosophical doctrine justifies the supremacy of logic and recognizes logic as the main tool of philosophy. Logic – the “power of discriminating and examining other things” – itself becomes the morality, and a logical mistake is considered as a moral error. The Stoics include into the realm of logic abilities to discern the true and the false, to infer the order of things, and to judge, what is appropriate to do. Gradually, as the art of inference, logic became the main source of new knowledge [Epictetus 131; Epictetus, ref. and qtd. in: Barnes 65–67, 69].

Eventually, for the Stoics, logic replaced philosophy and began to serve as the main source of knowledge, theology, ethics, and morality. Consequently, for Philo of Alexandria, Origen, Augustine, and other philosophizing theologians who applied logic for interpretation of the Scriptures, which they considered as the gathering of “symbolical–allegorical” legends, logic became the main tool of imagination and the source of assumptions propagated as the true knowledge of God.

Yet, in all times, there were few thinkers who recognized the danger of the philosophizing imagination. For instance, Cicero (106–43 B.C.) refers to the opinions of philosophers as to “the dreams of madmen,” and describes the outpourings of philosophizing–theologizing poets as “absurd.” In his understanding, the Egypt mythology is “insane” and the popular beliefs [for instance, the mythical–political–civil theology referred by Augustine in: The City of God VI.v–viii, xi] are “a mere mass of inconsistencies sprung from ignorance” [Cicero I.xiii.34, xvi.42–43].     

The Greek heathen philosophy also reveals the tragedy of the intellect that is imprisoned in the darkness of false assumptions but still discerns the sparkles of truth as the inhabitants of the Plato’s cave, who accept as truth the shadows of the images [Plato Republic 514a–515c].

With the images–shadows of the actuality, the ancient dreamers learned to create the imaginary theological worlds and make them the source and foundation of politics.

In return, the created by imagination theological assumptions became intertwined with the very fabric of human reasoning, composed the framework for thinking, influenced–modified philosophy and politics, and in the consequent cycle, were influenced by modified philosophy and by the results of previous political decisions. Such cyclic inter–influence produced the interactive theology – the fictitious theological system, which responds to development of culture and consequent changes of philosophical and political doctrines with the changes of own concepts and even own foundation; in general, this pattern reminds the adaptive techniques of chameleon that changes its appearance according to the environment.

From another angle of consideration, the essence of heathen theology might be inferred from the old saying: the cruel people have cruel gods.

From the point of view of “the ancient initiated” referred by Manly P. Hall, the heathen theology is the realm in which “the living are ruled by the dead” [Hall (2003) 69].

The brilliance of the design of the Greek philosophical entertainment conceals the fact that the imaginary theological and philosophical worlds and their derivatives serve the destruction, if they are applied to the actuality of the religious, social, and political life. As the blazing flame attracts a night butterfly, they attract the mind. Similarly to the butterfly perished in the flame, the mind loses itself within the artificial worlds of imagination without the true knowledge of God, and creates the images, concepts, and strategies, which bring destruction instead of expected survival and prosperity.

For instance, Philo of Alexandria’s assumption of identity of two incompatible realities, such as the Judaic theology–monotheism and Greek heathen theology–polytheism, based on apparently concurrent concepts and unrestricted imagination, is a typical example how the law of destruction works.

The standard pattern of destruction includes a combination of true and false assertions and an appeal to the logical reasoning: the true assumptions make all mixture verisimilar and, with the help of the classic (or common, or Aristotelian) logic, facilitate acceptance of the core of destruction under the mask of the secret/sacred truth. The substitution of the false assertions for the truth inevitably ruins the original reality or activates such transformation of the environment, which makes existence of the original reality impossible.

This pattern can be traced in the history of concepts of Origen and his followers – the theologians who had accepted Greek heathen philosophy and logic as the tools for creation of Christian theological knowledge and consequently, incorporated the heathen mythical theology into Western theology and consequently, absorbed practices and methods of the heathen empires into the Western – papal – church’s policies.

The irreconcilable difference between Christianity and the heathenism is in the focus of the mind:

–– the mind of the Christian is centered on the unchanging immaterial reality of God–Creator and rejects idols of the material imaginary worlds

–– the mind of the idol–worshipper transforms the reality of own existence into the imaginary changing and easily modifiable dream world and worships figments of imagination.

The heathen philosophy and Christianity are the mutually exclusive systems: the acceptance of knowledge created within the framework of the heathen philosophy transforms a Christian into an idol–worshipper; the knowledge and acceptance of the Christian dogma destroy the heathenism.

From the practical point of view, only the misuse of imagination, ignorance, and unrestrained passions make the heathenism possible.

Attraction to the world of imagination signifies the deep void within the mind. The closer is the mind to God as to the only focus of all mind’s aspirations the more complete becomes existence. If the mind acquired the treasure of life in God, it does not long for the imaginary world of human omnipotence.

The mind, which attempts to evaluate without bias the inheritance of the ancient Greek heathen philosophers–elaborators of imaginative reasoning, should take into consideration the consequences, which implementation of Greek heathen philosophy and especially, Plato’s inhumane utopia [Republic; Law] supplemented with Aristotle’s logic, had brought to mankind. 

It is almost impossible to find in the contemporary mundane philosophical studies interpretations of writings of the Hebrew Prophets concerning arrangement of the cohesive power and circulation of the knowledge of good or at least, concerning the significance of knowledge of the good within any life–oriented establishment. At the same time, many authors corroborate their assertions with the quotation from or interpretation of ancient Greek philosophers.

For instance, analysis of Anaximander and Socrates–Plato, published in 1997, suggests that the inner good of the soul destabilizes authority, power of law and rule: it “undermines every authority” [Ross xiii]. Another researcher infers that the rule–following habit undermines “the conception of truth” and the human nature constrains the rule–following [Barry xiii, 5; Hacking ref. in: Barry 77].

If to recall that the Prophet places the law into the heart of man and for the Christians, the human heart with the Law–Word of God within it, became the chosen vessel and the temple–dwelling, which belongs to God only {Deuteronomy 8:1–3; 30:11–14; Psalm 39(40):8; Acts 9:15; 1 Corinthians 3:16–17; 6:19–20}, the referred above assertions concerning the good, the law, the truth, and the human nature leads to the peculiar inference:

 

either the original human nature with the inner good became incompatible with the world

or

the laws, which originally were intended to pursue the good of man,
shifted their focus and now pursue the evil of man.

 

And indeed, if the good is seen as the antagonist of law, rules, and any authority, it means that the laws, rules, and authorities have lost their meaning and right to exist because they embody the evil and serve the destruction.

However, in theory, law, rules, authority must serve the good because they are intended to guard freedom and well–being of people within any establishment; therefore, in theory, their main meaning is the good of each person and all members of the establishment. This assumption induces the next inference: the conflict between the good (the good as the essence of the intelligence) and the evil (that is the insufficient knowledge of the actuality because of deprivation of good)  initiated by the ancient dreamers and fueled by the philosophizing theologians has reached all levels of the contemporary social and political establishments.

Consequently, the drastic changes of the meaning of the main life–preserving arrangements of the human establishments (such as law, authority, and rules) prompt some questions:

1. Does the good as the essence of knowledge have ceased to exist, and if yes, which name the contemporary philosophy should assume, what is its subject now?

2. Would ever the philosophizing mind be able to understand that the heathen philosophy must be treated with the same precautions with which the deadly poisons are treated, because the ancient philosophers substituted death for life when they accepted phantasms of the snake–worshipers?  

3. Would it be ever possible for all minds to discern the insidiousness of ancient slave–owners behind the contemporary slogans of liberty, equality, and other lies, disseminated by the ideologies founded on the doctrines crafted with heathen philosophy?

 

 

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

 Notes:

 

*1* See Philosophy – posting for February, 20, 2011.

 

*2* The essence of a system is described by the laws, which define and control

 

–– the system’s nature (including purposes, potentials, and way of operations–existence–achievement of the purposes)

–– inter– and intra–system processes and connections

–– time–range and manner of system’s evolution–development, actualization, collapse and disintegration.

 

The systems laws determine when and where a system will come into being; they define the system’s purposes, potency of intra–system cohesive power, patterns of knowledge creation–accumulation–transmission–consuming, consequences of the system’s existence and disintegration for the super–system (e.g., the civilization, society, state, environment) and other parameters, which identify the system’s life–cycle in the Past, the Present, and the Future.

 

The ability to comprehend the essence (that is to identify the laws, which control nature–purposes–potentials and creation–existence–destruction of a system), is the component of wisdom  in relation to the world of men (see Wisdom – Archive_Page_1_2008, posting for April 20, 2008; definition of “wisdom in potency” by St. Maximus the Confessor – in Imagination – Archive_Page_2_2008, posting for April 6, 2008).

 

*3*  See The Logic of Death – Archive_Page_2_2008, posting for October 19, 2008.

 

*4* The line of most known and influential philosophizing theologians – authors of heretical doctrines–misinterpretations of the Christian teachings and the Holy Scriptures includes Philo of Alexandria (the Old Testament), Origen, Augustine of Hippo, and Thomas Aquinas (the Old Testament and the New Testament).

 

*5* The myth could wrongly interpret the motives of Daedalus’ actions; Daedalus had the creative inquisitive mind of the scientist, and he was an engineer and sculptor; probably, he did it because of curiosity, which today would be classified as the scientific inquiry, probably, because of his own perversion, or for some reward: the logic of heathen mind cannot be reconstructed on the traditional assumption of natural human inclination to mercy and compassion.

 

*6* The Books of the Old Testament contain the references to the Canaanite rites of sacrifice of children as well as to the rites for which Sodom and Gomorrah have been destroyed. By the special mention of Moses, it was forbidden to bring in the house of the Lord the payment received for female and male prostitution {Deuteronomy 23:17–18; in English versions of the Bible, translation of  κυνος  is “dog”; however, the word  κυνος was used for identification of tamed beasts and male prostitutes}. Although these heathen rites were abomination for the chosen people, yet, they were practiced by some. Even king Solomon went after “other gods” including Sidonian Ashtoreth (Astarte), although he was recognized as the wisest ruler of the ancient world, and his wisdom and wealth excelled all his counterparts {e.g., in: Deuteronomy 32:15–17, 31–33; 23:17–18; 3 Kings 3:5–13; 10:23–24; 11:1–6; 15:9–13; 18:16–29; Isaiah 2:8; Jeremiah 51(44):15–19; Ezekiel 20:23–32; 22:1–9; the brief summary of heathen perversions in: 1 Peter 4:3–5; Romans 1:14–32; Wisdom 14:22–30}.

 

*7* The crucifixion reveals the greatest evil, which one human being might inflict on other human being – slavish death of a slave. A body fixed in unnatural position and incapable of any movement has to pass through slow destruction of all life–supporting and life–defending systems accompanied with intense pain. The more healthy (therefore, more life–capable) body is the longer agony lasts. The mind, which knows that death is inevitable, has to suffer excruciating pain of the dying body accompanied with complete helplessness, hopelessness, and despair.

 

*8* The Orphic prime beast–serpent entered the myths and fairy tales of other times and nations as the basilisk, a monster in a form of serpent or dragon with killing breath and glance which, as the glance of Greek Gorgon snake–haired Medusa, kills all living beings around.

 

*9* The contemporary continuation of the ancient beast–worship might be diagnosed, for instance, in transhumanism and in the logic of the contemporary darwinism– and atheism–driven ethics–free scientists and researchers. The followers of transhumanism are busy designing improvement of the human nature and manufacturing of supermen – they attempt to chain man to their understanding of perfection and to “lift man up” to the new creature with abilities, which would overcome both – human and animal – natures. In their hatred to God and to His creations, firstly, to man, the darwinism/atheism–driven scientists downgrade man and throw the human nature down, at the level of animals. In fact, they are in the state of secret, yet constant, war with the remnants of the human reason.

This war can be easily identified through their ferocious fighting against any positive mention of God in media, schools, research institutions, government, political, and social structures. All knowledge–creating establishments are penetrated with propaganda of the basic heathen assumption that man does not differ from animal, moreover, in some matters, human is inferior to the beasts. This propaganda allows increasing negation of the traditional human values; as the result, cynicism, corruption, and perversion supplanted mercy, humanism, virtues and human dignity within all societies, which in the recent Past tolerated Christian teachings.

        Atheism, assumption of similarity of human and animal nature, and eradication of the very meaning of human dignity make possible to spend enormous funds on non–human experiments on the humans and animals, including those which intervene with the natural reproduction of humans and animals (e.g., “creation” of chimeras – human–animal embryos). Having been unable to cure the lethal human diseases (these diseases might be the means of self–annihilation with which the nature prevents further abnormal mutations of immune system), the darwinism/atheism–driven scientists downgrade man at the level of rodents and monkeys, on which they develop their “medicine” and vaccines.

        However, the simple truth is that the rodent–monkey–based medicine is not effective for human beings and their long–term consequences for the human nature are not known. For instance, with all the costly efforts and their results – drugs and medical techniques, the sciences are neither able to find the real causes nor effective treatment of cancer of all kinds, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, HIV, allergies and other immune disorders, mental illnesses and disorders, as well as many other plagues. Moreover, the monstrous ignorance of “saviors of mankind” and its fruits, for instance, such as poisonous drugs, trigger the next circle of abnormal mutations, thus, increase the overall suffering, spread mental and physical perversion, and eventually, might culminate in annihilation of mankind. Indeed, as of today, the meaning of humaneness is already forgotten by many.

        The recent Past discloses the potential of unleashed ethics–free “scientific” imagination. For instance, the scientists at the service of Nazis accepted the notion of racial inferiority of non–German nations. Within the society that assumed neo–pagan cult of Nazis, they asserted that human beings, who belong to the “inferior nations,” are not complete human beings, that they are “underhumans” not different from animals. Consequently, in accordance with their logic, they inferred that if man constructed slaughterhouses for animals and if “underhumans” do not differ from animals, the unwanted “underhumans” – in the similar fashion, as their equals (animals) –

–– can be “processed” with a particular “effective device,” e.g., such as a concentration camp

–– the ashes from the ovens of such a camp can be used as a fertilizer for the German soil

–– the “underhumans” in the concentration camps can be used as the laboratory animals.

 

Those who learn the unbiased history of the totalitarian sates of the twentieth century know how the neo–pagans and ethics–free sciences have implemented their inferences.

 

*10* The original Christian (Greek Orthodox) dogma is established in the first–seventh centuries, by the first–seventh Ecumenical Councils, following the first gathering of the Apostles {Acts 2:1–4} and starting with the first council of the Christian Church in Jerusalem  {Acts 15:1–31}. The contents of the dogma is knowledge given through the Gospels – the original teachings granted by Lord God Jesus Christ and written down by His apostles. The Christian Orthodoxy does not admit heathen philosophy  ––  the fruit of venomous imagination of the serpent–worshipers  ––  as the source of knowledge of God and as the means of interpretation of the Holy Scriptures: the true Christian theology is unchangeable and non–modifiable as its Source – God is {Psalm 101(102):25–27}.

 

*11* Heraclites refers to Dionysus as “the god of death” [Heraclites qtd. in: Bevan 140]. Not only the physical destruction caused by the Maenads could be the source of such a reference: the artificially evoked altered states of the mind, which result in temporary and, then, permanent insanity, spell death of the reason. Perhaps, it is one of the explanations, why the Hebrew Prophets defined divination based on the altered states of the mind as abomination, rebellion, and sin against the Lord God – God of wisdom and knowledge.

 

*12* See  Philo of Alexandria – posting for July 27, 2008; Library files.

 

*13* The pre–Pythagorean Orphics developed the concept of spiral evolution, which explains development as the gradual ascent to the highest ideals of humanity and the openness of ultimate freedom, which can be obtained through knowledge, responsibility, mercy, and good. The Orphic doctrine asserts wisdom, memory, preservation of life, and the responsibility for thinking and actions as the pledge of the spiral evolution.

Although the Orphics recognized the concept of reincarnation (symbolized with a wheel), they doubted that a human soul has to repeat the cycles of reincarnation and that the history of humankind is the cycle of continuous returns and repetitions of the same events, therefore, the same mistakes. The Orphic concept of the possibility to break the continuity of birth–death cycles (the Orphic egg) and to ascend to the highest level of thinking, knowledge, happiness, and freedom reveals the distorted memory of the promise of the Messiah who would lift humankind up to the light of wisdom and restore the original perfection of the human nature. The latest modifications of the Orphic doctrine reflect the attempts to re–assemble the preserved pieces of the true knowledge of God into the self–sufficient undivided unity of the beliefs, morality, thinking, morals, actions, and responsibility for thinking and actions, which sustain the harmony of true religion.

While people weave responsibility for own actions into their lives with the laws and rules of social conduct, the idea of responsibility for thinking was missed by the many generations of the philosophers, although this idea reflects the universal law. Such ignorance has the negative consequences:

 – it distorted the process of development of philosophy, ethics, sciences, and social life of men

– it excluded the very idea of responsibility for own thoughts and optimization of thinking from the curriculum of the majority of philosophical schools. Figuratively speaking, the hungry are given poison to eat and drink, yet, they are deprived of ability to find the antidote. 

The concept of responsibility for the thought was inherited from the civilization that existed before Babylonian confusion and re–invented by the pre–Socratic philosophers who believed that the destination of man is to sustain the world harmony; this notion might be considered as the heathen version of pre–requisites of the evolution.

 

*14* Gar Baybrook defines Gnosticism as a mixture of Greek heathen philosophy, astrology, Egyptian mythology, Babylonian and Persian dualism, etc., produced by “elaboration of imagination” and with the “Greek mentality” [Baybrook 182–183].

 

*15* For instance, some Socrates’ suggestions [Plato Meno 89c, 99b–e, 100a–b; Protagoras 361a–b; Cratylus 400d] were interpreted as the reminiscence of the Hebrew Prophets, especially, two following assumptions:

– virtue is knowledge, which cannot be taught by people or acquired by nature – it is given by the divine dispensation

– men know nothing about gods; the nature and names of gods are hidden from men.

 

*16* The exact place of origin of Dionysian cult is unknown. Some researchers assert that the ancient Greeks considered the earliest version of orgiastic Dionysian cult as the insult to gods, men, and the social and political order [e.g., in: Jaeger 57–58], and this cult was introduced only by the tyrants who struggled for power and needed the deprived of reason and unreservedly obedient human weapon.

In general, the original Dionysian cult focuses on death and destruction.

At the first stage of initiation, orgiastic rituals silence, then, destroy the inner structures of the consciousness, then, impair reasoning allowing re–programming of the conscience: the initiated become easily managed and deprived of faculty of deliberation slaves of the cult’s ruler.

The second stage involves ritual killings and human sacrifice: the initiated learn to please the deity with death of living beings and to focus own existence on death and destruction of the others.

Then, the initiated pass through the selective rites: initially, the followers of the Dionysus are divided into two groups – the elite that would live to spread and administer the cult, and the ordinary initiated who compose the majority of the followers. They would become the ultimate weapon of destruction unreservedly obedient to the elite. The selected part of the ordinary initiated (those who do not fit for the purposes of the elite or are unable to serve the elite’s purposes) is allowed to pass into the third stage, which must be completed with suicide as the offering to the deity; those who commit suicide and serve as the death–weapon for the purposes of the elite die with expectations to be rewarded by the eternal bliss in the after–life [The Sunset Knowledge].

In the not–so–remote Past, the core of Dionysian cult was resurrected by the Manichaeism, and along with dualism became the foundation for the heathen doctrines and cults that use human beings as the weapons (e.g., the contemporary suicide–bombers).

The unreservedly obedient human weapon, which is the main product of the Dionysian cult, became the most valuable assets of any tyrant, social and political establishment that builds own authority and struggles for the absolute power with the means of suppression, deterrent, and enslavement of own subjects and other establishments, nations, states. The vestiges of Dionysian cult could be found in all heathen concepts and doctrines that provide the foundation for the wide range of cults, religions, and establishments, which use human beings as weapon, for instance, from the Manichaeism through Nazism.  

 

*17*  See:  False Teachers: Origen – posting for October 5, 2008, Library files, and The False Teachers: Augustine  – October 12, 2008, Library files.

 

*18* To the contrary, the contemporary papal theologians advise to re–read Plato, Origen, Augustine, Aquinas, etc., because they continue to consider philosophy as “the intellectual home for the Catholics” and as the means of the progress of the papal church. Some of them still comprehend theology in the Aquinas’ style, as “a speculative, theoretical science”; the others follow Duns Scotus and use theology as a practical science conducted with the means of Aristotelian philosophy. Johann Sebastian von Drey (1777–1853, Germany) envisions the task of theology as “construction of religious faith through knowledge”; he admits the Schelling’s definition of theology as “the highest synthesis of philosophical and historical knowledge” [Dulles 128, 130; Pannenberg 232; Schelling qtd. in: Himes xxii; von Drey #45 19].

The following example illustrates the “achievements” of the philosophizing theologians: contemporary papal theologian and monk Odo Brooke (1919–1971) declares that the works of Marcel and Jung assist in more profound understanding of the Christian doctrine of salvation, and a theologian must be “a metaphysician” [Brooke 226, 229].

The position of Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961) toward Christianity, therefore the value of his explanations of the Christian dogma for a Christian, might be inferred from his assertions:

a/  the “collision” of Pythagoreanism with Alexandrian theological thought of the second century B.C. and with the Old Testament resulted in “what one can call the beginning of Christianity as a world religion” 

b/  it is a “Christian belief”  that the human nature is “intrinsically evil” [Jung 136, 196].

These two assertions reveal the actual basic of the Jung’s speculations – the misconception and ignorance in the matters of Christian teachings. Christianity has nothing in common with the Pythagorean doctrine, as well as with mythical theology of the Alexandrian school. Furthermore, the human nature as any creation of God is good {Genesis 1:31}; that what human beings do with their nature – it is another issue.

If the belief is the Christian belief, it does not contradict the Holy Scriptures. Hence, it looks like a puzzle, why for understanding of the central concept of the Christian dogma, a learned papal theologian–monk might need assistance of the writings, which misinterpret Christianity, when everything had been told by God Himself and was written down by His Apostles?

The referred above opinion of Odo Brooke reveals the main reason of incompatibility of Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity: the different comprehension of the inter–relation between theology and philosophy. The attitude toward philosophy determines the difference between two irreconcilable types of the theological doctrines, concepts, and systems of religious beliefs, which underlie two incompatible logical realities – Christianity and Catholicism:

–– Christianity rejects philosophy as the means to create or interpret the revelations of God; Christian teachings is the revelation of God; therefore, Christian theology operates at the highest levels of complexity accessible to the human mind; it sustains life of human soul–heart–mind and leads the mind through the world of the matter where the love and knowledge of God should become thoughts, words, and actions of men; it employs philosophy at the lowest levels of the world of the matter, as the practical working tool, as the means to embody the love and knowledge of God into the practice, into the actions of men

–– Catholicism depends on philosophy as the source of theological knowledge. The philosophizing mind

 

– starts within the world of the matter

– although it is fed with the images of the matter and has no other knowledge
besides the knowledge of the matter,
it begin to fantasize about God and consequently
assumes that it has ascended to the realm of God

– applies the logic, laws, and knowledge
of the dissipating temporal realities of the material Universe
toward God and His eternal realm that is uncognizable
for the human mind existing within the world of the matter

– employs philosophy as the means to create knowledge about God –
that is an irrational goal: philosophy is the product of logic,
thus, it cannot operate at the levels of complexity,
which exceed the level of human reasoning.

 

In summary, the philosophizing mind comprehends philosophy as the “logical faith” [Edman 311]; by application of logic, it creates dream worlds filled with phantasms, empty speculations, and false knowledge and calls the mixture “theology” or “the knowledge of God.”

Therefore, the essence of the incompatibility of the Christian dogma preserved by Greek Orthodox Christian Church  with Catholicism – Aristotle–Aquinas’ political theology, which is the official doctrine of the papal church of Rome, is in the answer to the question “what is source of the knowledge of God –

 

the revelations of God

or

philosophy – the speculations,
which reflect the imaginary–artificial–dream worlds
created by the human reasoning, logic, and imagination?

 

Greek heathen philosophy formed the foundation for the majority of the Western schools of theological and philosophical thought. The unrestricted symbolic imagination resulting in misinterpretation of the sacred truths and substitution of dreams for the actuality became the distinctive feature, which allows instant recognition of the heathen foundation. The Aquinas’ doctrine, referred as “neo–Aristotelian system” [Holmes 7], or as “Christian Aristotelianism” [McKeon 149], was accepted as the official theological doctrine of the papal church of Rome. The contemporary Catholic theologians assume:

 

a/ Augustine and Thomas Aquinas produced the “new metaphysics” out of the “Greek materials,” and opened the possibility “to ‘place’ God philosophically.”

 

b/ following their (Augustine and Thomas Aquinas) example, the contemporary theologians must become philosophers and apprehend the Gospel through the deepened understanding of the world and man [Fairweather 368–369, 375]

 

c/ theology and philosophy became “largely identical in that theology is essentially metaphysics” [F.R. Tennant qtd. in: Fairweather 364].

 

Even in the twentieth century, the papal hierarchy did not change evaluation of the Aquinas’ doctrine: according to Cardinal Léger, Aquinas “wonderfully expressed the Christian faith using the categories of Aristotle” and renewed theology with the “boldness,” which Catholicism needs today [Léger 23]. Another theological finding of Cardinal Léger portrays faith as “social” phenomenon, not only “ineffable response” to God [Léger 23].

So, if to follow logic of the papal theologians ––

if the Aristotle’s doctrine,
(which introduced ideals of bee–hive and herd as the proper way of existence
or men–social animals–property of the community)
becomes the source of the faith

logically, the faith becomes social or the common attribute/property of the entire establishment

logically, the faith as social common attribute/property of the establishment
transforms the ideals of the herd into the articles of faith.

 

*19* Concerning the heathenism, see postings:

Heathenism – Archive_October _2010, October 17_2010,

The Logic of Death – Archive_Page_2_2008, October 19, 2008 

Idolatry – Archive_September_2010, September_19_2010, 

Slavery – Archive_Page_7_2008–2009, May 11, 2008 

Imagination – Archive_Page_2_2008, April 6, 2008.

 

 

__________________________________________________________________________________

 

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Edited March 7, 2011

(from the author’s texts posted in October, 2008, and April, 2010, at website, which is closed now)

 

 

 

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