Sunday's Thoughts
by Alice-Alexandra-Sofia
 

2_February_2014

 

Wisdom & the Lessons of Solomon

Part II. The Lessons of Solomon

 

Apostasy:

Introductory Note: the Concept of Wisdom

Phenomenon of Apostasy

Treatment of Religious Apostates

Danger of Apostasy

 

Failure

 

Conclusion

 

 

181_182_183_184 – February 2, 9, 16, 23.2014

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Part II. The Lessons of Solomon

Apostasy

 

…Thou shall have no other gods beside Me…

{Exodus 20:3}

 

 

 

Introductory Note: the Concept of Wisdom

 

Texts of the previous Part I refer to Wisdom as to the state–condition–being (or existence of a being) connected with God and absorbing the power/energy, or the state of being empowered with the Divine Energy {as it is said in: Psalm 17(18):2Κυριε ισχυς μου the Lord my strength/power/might}, which is coming from God and which is initiating and enabling the human reasoning. To be wise means to love God and to be loved by God {John 14:23; 17}:

a/ to have the energy and the power, which the Νους – the “depths of human soul” or the core of human essence (soul–heart–mind) receives from God

b/ to be able to transform the power/wisdom and divine energy of creation/knowledge received by the intellect – Νους  into the work of  διανοια – the mind

c/ to have unimpaired consciousness/thinking/reasoning/faculty of deliberation γνωμαφρονημαλογισμος – operating according to the nature: a conceptual, logical, reasoning faculty, through which a human being

– interprets and analyzes the information coming through the Αισθητηρια Οργανα – sensory facility

– imagines things, creates and accepts knowledge of the world of the matter, evaluates it with the criteria provided by the overall framework of reasoning (the good and the evil)

– enables transmission–sharing–communication of such knowledge

d/ to be able to apply the entirety of knowledge for own mental and physical survival, for maintenance of the part of the world that is given into own dominion, and for accomplishment of the purposes of own existence: survival and development.

The words of Lord Jesus Christ {John 6:63; 14; 15; 16; 17} provide explanation of wisdom [[the words, which St. Gregory Palamas made the foundation for his concept of the divine energies]]. As such, wisdom is an ability to accomplish the works of God, the natural abilities to work with the energy and power received from God through the Word–God and the Holy Spirit sent in His Name:

a/ to receive, to accept, and to assume (to be enabled and empowered to deal with)

b/ to transform into own thoughts – the energy entities or codes of systems, which, if embodied into the material structures and objects of the world of the matter, sustain life and evolution of mankind

c/ to embody into words, concepts, material structures and objects intended to sustain life and development of the others.

Wisdom accompanies Θεοσεβεια – godliness, which is also the natural condition of man: the Law/Word of God is not hidden behind the sea, it is not in the sky, and it is not in the power of someone to bring it and to make it work for all the others; the Law/Word of God is within the heart of man to fulfill it. Only the choice of man {to observe the Law of God or to violate it –– Deuteronomy 29:10–29; 30:1–21} determines the human destiny: life in dignity according to the human nature or degeneration and ruin because of perversion of the human nature.

Observance of the Law enables the one to comprehend its essence. Comprehension of the Law

a/ reveals the true nature of man as an embodiment and a function of the Law

b/ enables to understand the inevitability of “blessings” and “curses,” of which Moses warned {Deuteronomy 28; 29; 30}, when he offered his tribesmen a choice between life (because of observance of the law of God) and death (because of violation of the Law of God). 

In summary, wisdom is a component of human nature created in image and after likeness of God, the state/condition of intellect, which reveals itself through  the ability to accept the life–sustaining energy and power from God and to embody them into own actuality: to accept, to absorb/assimilate, create, and use knowledge necessary for creating, maintaining, and using systems and establishments, with which a human being sustains life, accomplishes purposes, and evolves for the next phase of existence. In other words, wisdom is an ability to accomplish the works of God, for the sake of which a human being has been created.

Consequently, the greatest wisdom of a human being, who wants 1/ to survive in the temporal world until he accomplishes his mission and 2/ to obtain the everlasting life in the eternal kingdom of God, might be envisioned as persistent focusing on preservation of the connection with God, through which the human being receives the energy of life, so the flow of the energy of life would never be interrupted. Preservation of such a connection demands internal stability and constancy of the main/core values, which define the human essence and sustain evolution as advancement in the way to God. The core values are determined by the Absolute Good – the attribute of God revealed to His creations*1*; the derivatives include unwavering steadfast faith, loyalty to God, observing of His commandments – all that defines life according to the law of God.

For the Old Testament people, who did not have knowledge of the Word–God, faith was the only condition, with which man could obtain wisdom and to evolve according to the purposes of the first phase of evolution initiated by knowledge of the Law – The Ten Commandments. Faith in One God {Exodus 20:1–6; Deuteronomy 6:4–6} was the only foundation, on which the mind could be inaccessible for iniquities, corruption, and apostasy {e.g., in: Hebrews 11:1–39; Psalm 17(18):2; 143(144):1–2}.

For the New Testament people, faith*2* became the first necessary step on their road to God. With faith, a Christian accepts the main commandments of Lord Jesus Christ, the Word–God, and learns to keep, to observe, and to embody them into own thoughts, words, and deeds. These commandments are love to God, love to neighbor, imitation of the mercy, perfection, and love of God. Through observance of the commandments, a Christian becomes accustomed to live by God and in God, and to love the others as God loves him {in: Matthew 5:48; Luke 6:36; John 13:34; 14: 15–26; 15:10–17; 17}.

Then, as St. Peter the Apostle writes {2 Peter 1:2–12}, God gives all things pertaining to life and godliness with the full knowledge of Lord God Jesus Christ Who is calling us through His glory and excellence {2 Peter 1:3}*3*. Then, the one needs diligence (or perseverance and consistency), which enhances correlating–bringing together in faith {σπουδην πασαν παρεισενεγκαντες, επιχορηγησατε εν τη πιστει2 Peter 1:5} virtue with knowledge, and with knowledge – self–control, and with self–control – patience, with patience – godliness, and then, love to the others. Diligence in faith and in observance of the commandments of God protects from failure and opens entrance into the everlasting kingdom of the Lord.

St. Peter also speaks of the state of knowing: having been unmoved (sustained) in the Truth that is present {ειδοτας, και εστηριγμενους εν τη παρουση αληθεια – 2 Peter 1:12}. Such state of knowing is presence of the Word–God

 

Who is της πιστεως Αρχηγον και Tελειωτην – the Author/Chief of faith

{Hebrews 12:2}

Who gives the unwavering faith, which sustains the permanent abilities

a/ to steadfastly observe the words of God

b/ to dutifully obey the commandments of God

c/ to embody the commandments of God into own existence

Who completes, makes perfect, consummates faith.

 

With the referred above texts, St. Peter the Apostle describes a new creation – the spiritual being–likeness of God the Creator Who revealed Himself as The One Who remains The Same, although the heavens – His creations – shall perish and shall be changed {Psalm 101(102):25–27}, and Whose Law is to be fulfilled completely: until the heavens and the earth pass away, in no way shall one iota or one line (κεραια) pass away from the law until all things happen {in: Matthew 5:17–18}.

In other words, with knowledge of God and through imitation of the perfection of God, the mind evolves into an invincible and indestructible system established with two system–creating powers acting at two levels of complexity:

 

by the Divine Power that acts through the knowledge of God and Lord Jesus Christ

{in: John 17:3}

and

with unwavering faith, diligence, steadfastness, and perseverance of a human being {2 Peter 1:1–12},

who is focused on God, who lives by faith in God, and who embodies the knowledge of God into own life.

 

For such a being, violations of the law of God (that is degeneration and perversion of own nature), sins against God and His creations, and apostasy are not possible {e.g., 1 John 3:1–24}.

In summary:

a/ if a human being lives according to the law of God, consistently with the human nature, he is enabled to receive the energy of life from the Creator

b/ if a human being violates the law of God, he perverts own nature and transforms himself into the useless “withered branch” incapable to serve the purposes of God and unable to do the works of God for the sake of which a human being has been created

c/ if a human being is the useless “withered branch” incapable to serve the purposes of God and unable to do the works of God, for the sake of which a human being has been created, he becomes the one in whom there is no place for the words of God, and who therefore, is a servant of the evil and the subject to the law of death – the matter/dust, the food of the evil, on which the wrath of God remains {Genesis 3:15; John 3:36; 8:37–44; η οργη του Θεου μενει επ’ αυτον - John 3:36}.

The one might comprehend the tragedy of those who deprived themselves of the ability to receive from God the energy of life, if the one knows that this energy sustains:

1/ temporal physical life as an ability to keep wholeness of the spirit–mind–flesh, or soul–heart–mind–body, or in other words, to have overall mental and physical health during the time at the earth

2/ spiritual life as a process of evolving into the immortal being who will be enabled to enter the presence of God and to dwell with Him through the eternity.

If the connection with God is broken, and the life–sustaining energy comes no more, a human being descends at the level of physical and mental degeneration*4*. Then, although the body might be fed with food (energy supplied by the temporal material structures) and its physical life might continue a while, the spiritual hunger and thirst pervert the human essence – soul–heart–mind – and make it incapable of existence in the presence of God.

Lord Jesus Christ referred to such a process, when He warned His disciples that without Him, they are not empowered – they can do nothing! – and those who are not in Him, become the cut off withered branches that will be collected and thrown into the fire {John 15:1–6}.

The first symptoms of spiritual hunger and thirst, which trigger mental degeneration, include an inability to create [[because the ability to create indicates the presence of the power received from God]].

However, millions of people, who do not have faith in God and who do not live by His law, create multitudes of things: write books, make movies and pieces of art, establish and maintain new states, business and political empires, design technical gadgets and means of technical progress, new weapons, and so on. Education, scientific research, manufacturing and processes that sustain life of societies, states, and nations never stop: the people incessantly consume earth resources and produce from them new products and services, which are consumed also incessantly.

What then, is this creative ability, the ability to do the works of the Word–God, of which God tells His followers {in: John 14:12; 15:1–7}, and which does not exist for those who do not observe His commandments and therefore, who do not abide in God?

To answer this question, the one should evaluate the vitality and overall usefulness of the creations of men, what they bring to the others – the good or the evil, how long they last, and what kind of purposes people accomplish through them. In other words, do these visible material evidences of designing, manufacturing and other kinds of apparently creative works have the actual value for achievement of the main purposes of each human being: evolution and obtaining the everlasting life?

Analysis of the phenomenon of apostasy and destiny of some creations of men, including Solomon’s kingdom – the system that he created and that he, his contemporaries, and his descendents expected to last forever as the prophet told to David {1 Chronicles 17:11–14}, might facilitate finding the answer.

 

 

Phenomenon of Apostasy

 

 

The phenomenon of apostasy accompanies mankind since the beginning of its history; apostates always were (and are) the part of daily life and problem of kingdoms, states, empires, and all kinds of establishments. What then, is the meaning of apostasy and what is its danger for the establishments, in which apostates appear?

The danger of apostasy*5* might be inferred from the commonly accepted meaning (classic definition) of this phenomenon: discarding by the one of the initial set of the beliefs, values, or principles on which the one’s personal, social, political, or business ways of existence have been built; however, the main threat is in implicit meaning: rebellion, revolt. In fact, an apostate is not only a being with the ruined foundation; he is the core of destruction, which might affect the entire establishment, within which he had been brought up, or which he maintains or serves or is a part/member. Usually, the apostates most fervently pursue destruction of the original system of knowledge that sustains existence of the establishment/system, within which they came into being and whose beliefs, values, and therefore, purposes, they rejected.

The double–meaning of Greek word αποστασιον*5* – apostasy – suggests the different points of consideration: two of them – religious roots and practical danger of the rebellion against the religion – are the matter of grave concern for any faithful Christian; apostasy as the threat to the state, empire, and any establishment (especially, including those that have the purposes of maintaining and protection of the social and political establishments) are the matter of concern for the systems analysts and designers.

In Judaism and Christianity, apostasy is violation of the first of The Ten Commandments: Thou shall have no other gods beside Me {Exodus 20:3}.

If the mind is inclined to apostasy, it means that perhaps, at some moment of its development, it was deprived of (or discarded) the true knowledge of God, so it formed own assumptions and established the overall framework of own reasoning, within which it built its life, on insufficient knowledge of God. In other words, the apostate has no right order of reason.

So, the religious roots of apostasy include

insufficient knowledge of God

the lack of faith

issuing lack of the inner stability

the absence of Θεοσεβεια – godliness

inabilities to accept and to observe the Law of God.

 

Apostasy is different from relapse and from heresy.

Relapse refers to the case of unstable personality and immaturity in faith: the one who initially followed some beliefs, discarded them for some reasons, accepted new beliefs, and then, discarded new beliefs, and accepted again the original ones {for instance, in: 2 Peter 2:15–22}.

Behavior of the Old Testament’s people does not fit under definition of relapse, because they were called to be the children of God {e.g., in: Deuteronomy 14:1–2}, and they committed themselves to God of their fathers with all their descendents and established the covenant with God for themselves and for all their descendents {Exodus; Deuteronomy}. For them, any act of acceptance of idols or the beliefs and laws and norms different from those established by Moses was apostasy {which they usually confirmed by persecution and murder of the prophets, messengers of God, and their fellow tribesmen who remained loyal to the law – in: Matthew 23:29–38; Luke 13:34–35; Jeremiah; 3 Kings; 4 Kings}.

For instance, when in the time of Judges, the chosen people served idols of the surrounding nations {Judges 10:6–16}, they committed the acts of apostasy, because they had their covenant with the True God {Deuteronomy 26:16–19; 27}, yet, they broken the covenant and turned away from God. Those who accepted the idols (and beliefs) of the heathen nations and became idol–worshipers*6* rejected faith in One God Who revealed Himself to the people in the time of the exodus and giving the Law, and Who they initially recognized as the God of their fathers and accepted as the only God {Deuteronomy 4; 6; 7; 8; 26; 27}. 

Heresy*7* sometimes was equated with apostasy; however, the purposes of heretics and apostates are different.

According to St. Paul the Apostle {1 Corinthians 11:19}, heresy might be seen as the means of test.

Heresy is needed for testing the steadfastness in knowledge of truth. If the one does not have complete στερεωμα*8* [[the foundation on which, within a mortal human being/creature of dust, the inner man*9* evolves into the immortal child of God]], he might accept lies as truth: he fails to discriminate between true knowledge and false – figments of corrupted imagination.

So, the one who failed might become heretic, apostate, or both.

In general, heresy might be seen as misinterpretation and falsification of the statement originally accepted as truth: heresy is the false knowledge of the system, which results from perversion of truth–foundation of the system with figments of human imagination [[while apostasy is rejection of knowledge on which the system is founded]]. Any heresy is disguised with true statements; frequently, heresy might be defined as the mixture of truth and false. When such a mixture looks verisimilar, some minds become attracted with the truth and unnoticeably come to the agreement with the false.     

From another angle of consideration, heresy might be likened to the disease, the disorder, which might be compared with the malignant tumor, which develops within the presumably healthy body, usurps control of the life–maintaining resources, and then, destroys its host. For instance, Tertullian identifies heresy as the fever – “deadly and excruciating” calamity whose purpose is annihilation of mankind [On The “Prescription” of Heretics I].

However, heretics believe that they follow True God and that their fantasies are the true knowledge of God: heretics do not reject God and their original religion; heretics change the image of God and modify original knowledge, which they then, consider as the new revelation of God and accept as new truth. Eventually, by the mercy of God, Who is the only One Who illuminates the human mind, heretics might be healed and enabled to perceive knowledge of the truth: God collects His Own, even if the others consider them as the lost ones {Luke 5:30–32; 7:36–50; John 6:37–46; 8:23–24; 14:6, 15–26; 16:7–15; Psalm 17(18):28–31; 118(119):176}.

If the mind is invulnerable to the corruptive influence of heresies, it means that it has steadfast faith: it is loyal to God, it has reached maturity in cognition of the Truth – the knowledge of God that leads into the eternity, and it dwells in love of God {John 17}. In other words, susceptibility to acceptance heresies as truth indicates absence of the Word–God within the human soul–heart–mind due to, for instance, immaturity, deprivation of the true knowledge, lack of faith, and therefore, inability to perceive God.

Frequently, heresy becomes the main weapon of the hidden apostates: apostates use heresy as the means of destruction of their original religion/set of principles/system, or whatever was their original core of beliefs or values.

So, if to accept Tertullian’s definition of heresy as “deadly and excruciating” calamity, an apostate might be envisioned as the one who explores and initiates the deadly calamity with the purpose to destroy.

 

 

Treatment of Religious Apostates

 

 

As history illustrates, for the rulers/leaders/judges, there is no significant difference between apostasy and heresy: they consider them both of them as the threat to the social and political stability, as the source of undesirable changes, which might culminate in destruction of the original system. Thus, apostates and heretics always were (and are) treated as the threat to existence of the establishment in which they appeared.

All religions and all establishments had some rules for treatment of apostates and heretics; the most frequent one of them was (and, in some, still is) physical extermination.

For instance,

– according to the Laws of Moses, any apostate who spoke for idols or offered own fantasies as the words of God, had to be put to death {Deuteronomy 13:1–18}, because the strength of ancient Israel was in pure uncontaminated knowledge of God

– the Plato’s political utopia [[which provided Aquinas with the blueprint for his concept of justice and treatment of the relapsed heretics]] suggests the death penalty for relapsed heretics for the sake of ideal stability of the ideal society [in: Plato Laws 908d–909a].

 – in the Roman Empire, heresy was equated to treason and punished by death

– the papal Inquisition*10* was established for extermination of heresy along with heretics

– Thomas Aquinas the main theologian of the papacy justified death sentence for the relapsed heretics with an assertion that the papal church cannot imitate mercy of God.

In particular, Aquinas*11* argues that heretics turn back to the church in order to save their temporal goods: life and property. If they relapse due to their inconsistency in faith, their existence would “infect others,” and the others would feel free to lapse into heresy; therefore, the relapsed heretics must be put to death in order to save the community from heresy. Aquinas separates the papal church from Christian teachings {Matthew 18:10–18; Luke 6:36; John 13:34–35; 15:9–17} with dictum: “the church cannot imitate God” and protect from the sentence of death the heretics who fall into heresy second time after the church admitted them to penance [[It was Aquinas’ response to the objection that God in His mercy receives all, so His Church should do the same]]. As soon as the relapsed heretics are inconsistent in faith, the church admits them to penance again to save their souls, yet, she condemns them to death to save the others from the infection of heresy [in: Summa Theologica II–II Q.11 a4 a].

However, if man contradicts the words of God or rejects them due to any reason, he commits apostasy: Aquinas’ assertion of impracticality of mercy of God for the papal establishment exposes apostasy of Aquinas and the establishment, which actions he attempts to justify.

Only Christianity does not recognize the right of man to judge and to punish the others for their beliefs: Christianity is the religion of freedom and love.

Lord God Jesus Christ and His apostles warned the Christians of those enemies who would come and disguise their true essence with the name of Lord Jesus Christ: false prophets, false teachers, apostates and heretics. Communion with the heretics, apostates, and corrupted ones and uncleanness are forbidden for the Christians whose God is the Consuming Fire {Luke 12:49; Hebrews 12:12–29; Deuteronomy 4:24}.

However, for the Christian communities, only excommunication is permitted, because

– only God is the Judge of the inner man, and only God decides eternal destiny of His creation {Matthew 13:24–30, 36–43; 18:10–18; 24:4–5, 23–24; Mark 13:5–6; Luke 21:8–19; Acts 20:29–30; 2 Peter  2:1–22; 1 John 2:18–21, 27; 3:7–10; 5:21; 1 Corinthians 5:9–13; 6:9–11, 19–20; 10:7–14; Titus 3:9–10; Ephesians 5:5–11}.

– as Lord God says, whatever the ones binds on the earth shall be having been already bound in Heaven, and whatever the one looses on the earth shall be having been already loosed in Heaven {Matthew 18:18} – everything and the end of all things is only in God’s discretion {in: John 6:44}.

Those who had formed the Christian traditions – the Apostles, their apprentices and co–workers, and all the others, for whom the words of Lord God Jesus Christ were the direct experience or the precious inheritance of the previous generation – regarded the life and freedom of each human being as the most sacred gift and embodiment of the will of God.

In particular, Tertullian (160–220) writes that the freedom of worship is “a fundamental human right,” and religion must not be compelled: “It must be embraced freely, and not forced.” Lactantius in his Divinae Institutiones (308) also considers religion as the matter of personal free choice; he writes that if people defend religion by “bloodshed, by tortures and crime,” they do not defend the religion; they “pollute and profane it” [Tertullian and Lactantius qtd. in: Vacandard 2–4].

St. John Chrysostom (345–407) expresses the collective opinion of the Church elders, which the Christian Church accepted at the beginning of her existence as her official position concerning heretics: “To put a heretic to death would be to introduce upon the earth an inexpiable crime” [St. John Chrysostom qtd. in: Willett 21].

For the Christian Church, excommunication means avoidance of communications with a person who, because of disagreement in questions of faith and because of behavior inconsistent with the commandments of God, is not allowed to participate in the life of the Church until he, by his own free will, reconciles his disagreement or misunderstanding in the matters of faith and until he discontinues inappropriate behavior (manner of life), with which he violates the commandments of God and Church’s traditions. Even after excommunication, the Christian Church considers his life and freedom as the sacred gifts of God, the gifts, which belong to any human being by the will of God, therefore, must not be taken away by the God’s creations: neither a human being nor a human institution has the rights to murder a heretic, to deprive him of his freedom and property, to forcefully change his life, or to inflict on him any harm.

 

 

Danger of Apostasy

 

Three types of apostates exist:

1/ those who reject their religion openly, and sometimes have to face the deadly consequences

2/ those who apparently follow the traditional religion, rituals, and manner of life, yet, secretly work on destruction of their previous religion

3/ those who make their career and manner of living by destroying the old set of beliefs; usually they are descendents or associates of the apostate who

– either attempt to prove their loyalty to the new faith/masters/establishments through complete destruction of the old religion/establishment of their ancestors/predecessors

– or continue the work of the initial destroyers.

Two examples illustrate the difference among the different types of apostates:

1/ the Philo of Alexandria phenomenon*12* – the apostates that secretly work on destruction of the old set of beliefs and on establishing of the new beliefs, which usually, are presented as the new interpretations of the old ones, reconciliation of the incompatible in their essence theological or other doctrines, or additions

2/ the Torquemada phenomenon*13* – the third type of apostates. The Torquemada’s case illustrates papal treatment of Judaism and the Jews. As the history of the papal establishment and the Western civilization shows, Nazi Germany adopted anti–Semitism, which was introduced in the Medieval Spain*14*.

The history of civilization provides also examples of the institutionalized apostasy, when the apostates create the establishment (system) to pursue their purposes, which entail destruction of the original establishment (system).

One of such examples is the ancient kingdom of Israel, which came to existence because the people rejected God; another example is the papal Church of Rome, which established the Inquisition and in which Aquinas’ doctrine*11* founded on the heathen philosophy took the place of the Christian teachings.

During the period of Judges, when the people were settled in the Promised Land as God promised {Joshua 21:41–43}, contacts with the surrounding nations, cases of acceptance of the idols by Israelites, manner of life, and idol–worship of surrounding nations accustomed the chosen people to apostasy and began to impair their overall attitude. Eventually, they came to Samuel the prophet and their Judge to ask for a king. They demanded a mortal man to judge them, to perform before them, and to lead their battles, so they would be as all the nations {1 Kings 8:1–22; 10:17–25; 12:1–25}.

Seemingly, as the people presented their demand and as Samuel interpreted their action, it was people’s rejection of the Samuel’s corrupted sons as their Judges and leaders {1 Kings 7:15–17; 8:1–6}. However, God Who sees the heart of man explained to Samuel {1 Kings 8:7–10} that it is not he, Samuel, whom they reject: they reject God as their God, Ruler, and King, as they did it before, since He brought them out of Egypt.

Hence, demand of a mortal king to rule over them was the act that initiated establishment of the institutionalized apostasy, because the people

a/ rejected God and the system established by God for His Own people*15* for whom He was the Judge, the Ruler, and the Supreme Authority, and whom He governed through the prophets – messengers of His will, and the judges who He appointed in the time of troubles as temporary organizers and military leaders {Judges}

b/ demanded man instead of God and human establishment (kingdom) instead of the system initiated by God (the chosen race, the kingdom of the priests).

Soon after the new kingdom – ancient Israel – came into existence, Saul the first king has met his death for disobedience to God and disregarding of warnings of Samuel the prophet. Then, the kingdom was given to David the shepherd, poet, and prophet, who tested the authority of a king (and the limits of tolerance of God) by killing his subject for the sake of the subject’s wife {2 Kings 11; 12:1–25}*16*.

Then, Solomon inherited the kingdom. Initially (and apparently), Solomon remained loyal to God: he wrote many books in which he mentioned God and through which he conveyed his outlook to the next generations {Ecclesiastes; Proverbs; Wisdom}, he built the temple, adored it with countless treasures and pieces of arts (including those made by the subjects of Chiram the king of Tyre – king of Phoenicians*17*, and especially by Chiram of Tyre, the Phoenician), made sacrifices in presence of his people, and prayed to God {3 Kings 5; 6; 7; 8}.

God heard Solomon’s prayer, hallowed the house that Solomon built, and appeared to him second time. Yet, God warned Solomon that He will establish the throne of his kingdom in Israel forever, as He promised David, only if he will be before Him as his father, David, and if he will keep the commandments of God and His ordinances, which Moses set before him {Exodus; Deuteronomy; esp. Deuteronomy 4; 5; 6; 10; 11; 12; 17:14–20}. If Solomon or his children shall by any way revolt from God, if they do not keep ordinances and commandments of God, and if they go and serve idols, then, God will cut Israel off the land; the Israel shall be a desolation and by–word to all nations, which will say that Israel was destroyed because people forsook their God and attached themselves to strange gods {3 Kings 9:1–9}.

As it was before, when the chosen nation decided to be as all other nations ruled by mortal king {1 Kings 8} , so it was in the time of the third king of the chosen people {3 Kings 9}: God gave His creations complete freedom to act, yet, in His mercy, He warned them of consequences of their actions.

So, Solomon who built the building – the temple, and organized its maintenance {even after his death, the people could come and worship God in Jerusalem, if they choose – in: 3 Kings 11; 12}, began with open recognition of the authority of God. At the ceremony of opening the temple, Solomon stand before assembly of the people of God and spoke to God on their behalf {3 Kings 8}, as they wanted {1 Kings 8:19–20}. Yet, in spite of God’s warning, Solomon discarded the ordinances of Moses {esp. Deuteronomy 17:14–20}, and then, he finished as an apostate corrupted by idol–worshiping women, which, as Moses warned, inclined his heart to idols. Because of his apostasy, the kingdom that he built was divided and began its way to the ultimate destruction.

After Solomon, the apostasy became the most prominent feature of the following rulers and their courtiers {3 Kings; 4 Kings}. The people observed behavior of their kings–apostates and some of them followed their example; as a result, the history of the ancient kingdom became a convincible illustration of the consequences of apostasy*18*.

The Solomon’s temple existed about four centuries, until it was ruined by the Babylonian Empire, which conquered Jerusalem and took people into captivity.

The scribes and other learned people who survived captivity had no doubt concerning the reasons of destruction of their kingdom. As Daniel the prophet writes, the people have sinned, committed iniquities, violated the law of God, and disregarded the messages of the prophets who were sent by God. As the result, the calamities and curses promised by Moses to the apostates who would leave God, serve the idols, and violate the law, who do not listen the voice of God, and who do not turn back to God to ask for forgiveness, have been poured out on the sinners as it is written in the law of Moses {Daniel 9:1–19; Deuteronomy; also in: Jeremiah; Lamentations}.

So, firstly, apostasy led to the Babylonian captivity. Then, the history of ancient Israelites became the literal embodiment of the διαφθορον pattern: totality of physical, moral, and religious ruin initiated by the apostasy and accomplished through corruption of rulers, prophets, priests, scribes, and educated elite, incessant conflicts, wars, and calamities that culminated in loss of independence, when Judea became the province of the Roman Empire, and the following ultimate destruction of the remnants of the ancient kingdom*18*.

In general, the history of the ancient kingdom illustrates a specific pattern of apostasy: the process of gradual substitution of the power of mortal man for the power of God, when the kings–heads of the hierarchy begin to disregard the will of God, to attribute to themselves the highest authority, which exceeds the law given by God, disregard and discard the law of God, attempt to elevate themselves at the place of God, and ultimately, ruin the system, which they have to maintain and to develop. This process might be referred as an initial attempt to establish the absolute power of man over his creations and over those who use those creations for own advantages or are a part of them (for instance, king’s subjects who seek protection of the state and live under authority of the king). However, the Absolute Power itself, and especially, over men – creations of God, is the attribute of God, and as such, is out of reach of man.

Such pattern of destruction would not work in the original system – the nation of the priests governed and controlled and led by God. Yet, such pattern describes the most typical features of any system/establishment built on insufficient or false knowledge of God; for instance, the heathen empires, starting with the Minoans and Egyptians with their deified rulers*19*, the papal church with the deified pope without whom as the papacy proclaims, eternal salvation is not possible*20*, totalitarian states of the twentieth century with cult of personalities and deified state*21*, and any past, present, or future establishment, in which an opposing and exalting himself human being claims the place of God.

The history of the papal empire provides an advanced example of the destructive potential of institutionalized apostasy, when it is embodied into a religious establishment. St. Paul the Apostle describes this pattern, forewarns of its danger, and identifies its actual roots – the arch–evil, when he writes {in: 2 Thessalonians 2:3–12} of the one opposing and exalting himself – the man of sin, “son of perdition,” who exalts himself over everything being called God and the object of worship, who shows himself that he is a god and it is for him to sit in the temple of God as God. Through such a being, “the mystery of lawlessness” works; this being serves destruction of those who have no love to truth, who substitute the false for the truth, and who have delighted in unrighteousness.

After the Great Schism*22*, the papacy considered the Christians who did not accept papal pretense to the absolute power over Christendom as schismatics [[a schismatic is a person who refuses to subject his mind and conscience to the control by the superiors – members of the papal hierarchy; briefly, the schismatic (e.g., an Orthodox Christian) does not worship the pope and does not recognize the ability of pope to stand at the place of God]]. The Crusade of 1204, when papal subjects sacked Constantinople, plundered and desecrated Christian temples, raped and murdered Christians, and the reference of pope Innocent III to the capture of Constantinople as to “magnifica miracula” [Innocent III’s letter qtd. in: Runciman 151] revealed the actual papal attitude toward Christianity*23*.  Then, the papacy established the Latin Empire on the ruins of Constantinople and Christian temples; although it was short–lived enterprise, the Catholic Crusaders ruined Constantinople and depleted its reserves in such a degree that the Byzantine Empire was not able to recover completely.

Michael VIII Paleologus recaptured Constantinople in 1261; however, Byzantine Empire never regained her previous might and wealth. In 1453, Constantinople was captured by the Turks, the last Emperor – Constantine XI – was murdered, the building of the Hagia Sofia – the Temple of Holy Wisdom of God, was reconstructed into the mosque, and the Byzantine Empire ceased to exist. Constantinople became Istanbul – the capital of the Ottoman Caliphate.

The papacy and the papal Crusades made possible establishment of the Islamic Caliphate on the ruins of Christian Byzantium. With the fall of the Byzantine Empire – the last attempt in the history of mankind to combine genuine Christian teachings with the earthly human power, the model of global Islamic domination was born; now it is near to its completion and to the quest for the world–wide domination.

Thomas Aquinas asserted that schism is the mortal sin punished by death. In general, Aquinas’ references to the schismatics reflect the recent for the Aquinas (1225–1273) reality: they were written in the same century when the papal Crusaders sacked Constantinople (1204) and established (temporarily) the papal authority over the Constantinople with plunder and destruction of the temples of God and with murder, humiliation, and robbery of the Christians – men, women, and children.

The key for understanding the actual danger of schism for the papacy might be found in the Aquinas’ statement that schismatics “are unwilling to be controlled by the Church’s spiritual power,” while justice demands man to subject his mind entirely to God [Summa Theologica II–II Q.57 a1 a, ro3].

The first wrong assertion in the referred above Aquinas’ statement is association of the “spiritual power” of the papal church with God. Other Aquinas’ works and statements of the Roman popes, analysis of which is not the subject of current consideration*24*, confirm that for Aquinas and his superior–pope whom Aquinas deified, rebellion against the pope is equal to denial of God. Consequently, the schismatics, who do not deify the pope and who do not recognize the main Aquinas’ virtue of unreserved obedience to the superior–pope, commit the mortal sin punishable by death. Execution of Ian Hus the Priest*25*, who opposed the papal apostasy and who was burnt at the stake as a heretic, provides the convincing example of papal dealing with Christians who attempt to remain loyal to God, to follow Lord Jesus Christ, and to observe the Christian apostolic traditions.  

Another interesting point of the Aquinas’ concept of schism is the assertion: the spiritual power is twofold and consists from the sacramental power, which schismatics retain, and from the power of jurisdiction, which schismatics violate [Summa Theologica II–II Q.39 a3].

However, if schismatics retain the sacramental power [[the sacramental power connects man with God and signifies that man belongs to God and works for His purposes]], it means that for Aquinas, schism becomes the mortal sin not because schismatics rebel against God. Aquinas considers schism as the mortal sin, because it is the rebellion against the power of jurisdiction: schism deprives the papal hierarchy of prospective subjects who reject submission to the Roman pope and thus, should be treated as apostates [[put to death]].

This particular concept reveals the actual deity of Aquinas’ establishment – mortal man elevated at the place of God, and thus, confirms that the Aquinas’ establishment is apostasy.

Aquinas’ political theology and the history of the papal church provide many confirmations of apostasy as intentional opposition and rejection of the commandments of God. For instance, concerning “Thou shall not steal” and the second great commandments “You shall love your neighbor as yourself” {Exodus 20:14; Matthew 22:36–40}

– the law of the pope Innocent III, which legalized confiscation of property of heretics [e.g., Maycock 104] and its application in Spain, where the faithful Catholics stripped the Jews and the Moors of their property [e.g., Willett 83] [[cf. in: Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils]] 

– the actions of the Roman popes who initiated the Crusades and compelled the state rulers to punish (in many cases to kill) those whom the papal church condemned as heretics and to confiscate their property, to expel the unbelievers and to deprive them from their rights and their property

– the assumed by the papacy authority to deprive of property condemned heretics and the Jews who did not wish to convert into the Catholicism.

– Thomas Aquinas’ concept of unjust possession [Summa Theologica II–II Q.66 a8 ro2], which attempts to justify the habit of the papal hierarchy to discard the commandments of God – do not kill and do not covet another’s property, and which is intended to refute two main commandments of God on which all the laws and the prophets hang (κρεμανται – hang, depend completely, are sturdy fixed upon) {in: Matthew 22:36–40}.

In particular, Aquinas postulates the connection between the faith and property: “unbelievers possess their goods unjustly,” therefore, the public authority may violently take the goods from the unbelievers [Summa Theologica II–II Q.66 a8 ro2]. The essence of this Aquinas’ assertion is:

1/ violation of the commandment of God: you shall not steal {Exodus 20:14} and the second greatest commandments – love your neighbor as yourself {Matthew 22:36–40} – that is apostasy and idol–worship

2/ materialism in the spiritual matters that is contradiction to the fundamentals of Christian faith {John 4:23–24}.

The Aquinas’ concept of connection between the officially accepted faith and the right to possess the property might be seen as continuation of the practices of the Roman pagan Empire, which the superior–emperor employed for intimidation and suppression of his subjects, and also the practical development of the Augustine’s assertion*26* that the faithful might benefit from the wealth of the unbelievers; the foundation of both are in the heathen philosophy and practices of the heathen empire, therefore, both of them confirm personal apostasy of Aquinas and the institutionalized apostasy of papal establishment as opposition and rejection of the Christian teachings and acceptance of the heathenism; both of them were repeated by other establishments.

For instance, in the time of Inquisition, especially in Spain, the faithful Catholics diligently expropriated property of the Jews and the Moors. Later, in the Nazi and communist states, the members of the ruling parties expropriated property of the Jews (Nazi Germany) and property of rich and different–minded people who did not belong to the communist party, professed Christianity or any other religion, or were members of the social groups and national minorities marked for extermination (bolshevist Russia). Only criteria of evaluation – who are the unbelievers from whom their property may be taken violently – differentiate the papal hierarchical church, the Nazi state, and the bolshevist/communist state: for the papal hierarchy such main criterion was the papal faith; for the Nazis – race; for communists – social status and submission to the communist ideology.

In summary, this Aquinas’ concept embodies the nature of the papal establishment, which for the Christians, is the institutionalized apostasy.

Another indication of the apostasy is uncleanness and vice, which during centuries incessantly hunt the papal establishment. The recent revelations concerning world–wide abuse of children in the UN report of January 31, 2014*27*, which also mentions the Magdalene laundries of Ireland run by the papal establishment under the heading Torture and other cruel or degrading treatment or punishment, in Part D. Violence against Children, provide an additional example of the danger of the institutionalized apostasy. It opens for the world the deeds of the papal establishment that under cover of the religion, which the papacy blasphemously associates with Christianity, harbors pedophiles and perverts, abuses and tortures children, and destroys moral and physical health of the papal subjects. However, the most revealing is not the UN Report itself; the most revealing points are

1/ the Vatican’s response to the UN report concerning world–wide abuse of children in the papal establishments is the complain that “it interfered with church teaching and religious freedom” [in: The U.N. Confronts the Vatican –  http: // www. nytimes.com/2014/02/06/opinion/the-un-confronts-the-vatican.html?src=recg]

2/ the Vatican’s attempt to separate jurisdiction of the Vatican over its territory and jurisdiction of the local episcopates under the papal power, while, the papacy constantly asserts its world–wide power and claims the right on the unreserved obedience to the superiors – the first one of them is the pope.

However, the UN Report notices that “subordinates in Catholic religious orders are bound by obedience to the Pope in accordance with Canons 331 and 590. The Committee therefore reminds the Holy See that by ratifying the Convention, it has committed itself to implementing the Convention not only on the territory of the Vatican City State but also as the supreme power of the Catholic Church through individuals and institutions placed under its authority” [UN Report, III.8]*27*.

So, although the papal establishment did not hesitate to burn people alive for disobedience to the papal superiors and rejection of the papal pretense on the place of God*25*, and through the centuries after the Great Schism relentlessly pursued subjugation of the Orthodox Christianity (and continues its efforts through the ecumenical movement*28*), now, when the people attempt to curb the lechery of pedophiles and to stop abuse of children, it attempts to cover itself with hypocritical statements concerning territorial jurisdiction and “church teaching and religious freedom.”

However, if to take into consideration the nature of the papal establishment, the one might conclude that there is no possibility to ever have the satisfying response or to expect complete extermination of the abusive practices from the daily life of the papal establishment. The establishment works according to Aquinas’ doctrine; in particular, on the basis of assumptions*29*

a/ “special grace” of the papal office issuing from the “divinely appointed functionary” – the deified pope

b/ specific “virtue of authority,” according to which even the wicked sinners, if they are prelates and princes, stand at the place of God and have a “share of the dignity of God,” and the issuing papal assertion that priests in the state of mortal sin can discharge their duties; then, the place at the papal hierarchy protects the wicked sinner from just punishment

c/ the power of the pope to override the law of God.

Consequently, if the faithful papal subject classifies the abuse of children and other crimes committed by the papacy and the papal clergy as crimes, he becomes the apostate – the one who opposes the original teachings, on which the papal establishment is founded.

Consequently, none with the unbiased mind would expect any drastic changes in the papal establishment after analysis of the Aquinas’ doctrine*29*. Probably, the cover–up and the pressure on the victims would be increased to conceal their suffering and crimes of their abusers from the people, as the inquisition concealed in its dungeons even those who were justified after coming through the inhumane tortures. The papal establishment will not change by own efforts; it might be only abolished when its deeds and suffering of its victims overflow the limits of people tolerance.

It looks that there is a time for the UN to continue its noble struggle for the human rights and freedoms by demanding the open disassociation of the papal religion from the Christianity, so

– the rights of the Christians to practice their religion of freedom, love, and peace without slander of those who associate Catholicism with Christianity [[this slander is the consequences of papal pretense to speak on behalf of Christendom and continued cover of the Aristotle–Aquinas’ political theology – official doctrine of the papal church with the name of Lord Jesus Christ]] to be restored

– the Christians would be spared of abuses and persecutions, which are the consequences of associations of Christian teachings with the crimes against humanity:

 

the name of Christianity should be purified from any association

with the institutionalized apostasy and vice elevated in the rank of religion

centered on the deified man – the pope and Prefect of the Inquisition*10*

the truth –

that Christians have no any association with the papal establishment and

Christians are not responsible for the papal crimes against humanity

committed by Crusaders, inquisitors, “priests”–pedophiles, and deified “superiors” –

would become the world–wide knowledge.

 

In conclusion, the papal establishment, provides a convincing example of the institutionalized apostasy

a/ that covers itself with the references to the Gospels and pretends to proclaim Gospels, while its deeds are the deeds of the evil

b/ that at the current stage of development advanced

from

physical extermination and tortures of the bodies of human beings accomplished by the Inquisition

to

destruction of faith and slander of Christianity

through corruption and perversion of the entire establishment,

which continues to pretend to speak on behalf of Christendom and continues to mention the Gospel of Christ

 

c/ during the centuries of the papal struggle for the absolute spiritual and secular authority, relentlessly pursued destruction of Christianity and its roots – Judaism.




Part II. The Lessons of Solomon:

Failure

 

…Thou shall have no other gods beside Me…

{Exodus 20:3}

 

 

Introductory Note

 

The personal apostasy of a leader initiates destruction of the system that he created. The destruction begins with impairment of original cohesive power*30* [[for the ancient Israel, an embodiment of such cohesive power was the flow of information that maintained observance of the Laws of Moses]], which sustains life (operations) of the kingdom (system). The cohesive power is the first target for the apostate, because the original laws and beliefs become impediments that obstruct achievement of his purposes, especially those through which he intends to become able

a/ to openly express beliefs, truths, concepts, outlook, ways of life, purposes that oppose the original ones

b/ to act accordingly to his new beliefs and for achievement of purposes, which are inconsistent with those based on the original beliefs

c/ to impose his new beliefs, outlook, ways of life, and purposes onto all the others who he either controls already or desires to include into the sphere of his influence.

At the level of institutionalization, the act of religious apostasy as rejection of the original beliefs is supplemented with the desire to assume the position of the highest authority and to obtain the absolute power, which, in fact, is the attribute of God. When an apostate constructs a system for destruction of his previous religion, philosophical/other foundation, or domain of knowledge, he begins with defining the power that he would need, designing the center capable of holding such power, and concentrating the power.

As the history illustrates, any leader/head/center of any establishment/hierarchy/system built within the heathen knowledge framework inevitably attempts to make his power absolute. In general, this ladder into the abyss of destruction has the following steps:

 

materialistic outlook, which usually culminates in idol–worship,

whatever appearance it might take*6*

institutionalized violations of the law of God

apostasy,

firstly, as rejection of the belief that

the Absolute Power is the attribute of the Almighty God only

 

This ladder (or the processes that are the part of the διαφθορον pattern) seems to be unavoidable for any ruler/leader with either insufficient knowledge of God or heathen beliefs.

Solomon’s story facilitates analysis of the core of destruction, through which apostasy might destroy the entire system.

 

 

Failure

 

Destiny of Solomon reveals three failures: as a person, as a wise man, and as a ruler; all of them are the consequences of his personal apostasy, against which God warned Solomon after consecration of the building that he constructed as the temple for God {3 Kings 9:1–9}.

As it was noticed in the Introduction to Part I (Folder 2014, Page 1 January_2014), although Solomon was acknowledged as the wisest ruler and although he obtained knowledge, wealth, power, and glory, which elevated him at the level reachable by none of the rulers – neither before him nor after him, ultimately, he failed as a person, as a wise man who was supposed to live according to the power of understanding that he received from God, and as a ruler {in: 3 Kings 11:1–40}:

1/ as a person, he became a corrupted man and apostate

2/ as a wise man, he disregarded the warning concerning observing the commandments of God and assumed that he would be able to defy the will of God (he even attempted to assassinate his servant to whom God willed to give the most part of the Solomon’s kingdom)

3/ as a ruler, he initiated collapse of his own creation – the state, which he has built: his kingdom was divided and the most part of it was taken away from Solomon’s son and given to Solomon’s servant; only for the sake of David, descendents of David were kept on the throne awhile {3 Kings, esp. 11:9–13, 28–40; 4 Kings}.

So, if the one wants to understand the reasons of Solomon’s failure, the one should answer some questions:

What Solomon, in fact, asked from God, and did he, in fact, have wisdom, which transforms man into a friend of God and man’s creation into an invincible system?

What is the human wisdom, if the most illustrious possessor of it triggered off destruction of his own kingdom?

What was the beginning of Solomon’s failures?

What has brought into being the core of destruction, which afterward initiated centuries–long processes of corruption that

 

culminated in collapse of the ancient kingdom that was expected to last forever

demolished the throne of David as an embodiment of the earthly power of kings*16*

resulted in immeasurable suffering of the people,

who ultimately, were expelled from the Promised Land,

scattered over the provinces of the Roman Empire,

and began their way of sorrows predicted by Moses {Deuteronomy}

and foreseen by Isaiah*31* and other prophets?

 

As always, the keys to understanding are in the Holy Scriptures:

a/ knowledge of wisdom and order of reasoning, which might be inferred from the words of God, words and actions of Moses, and the writings of the Apostles conveyed by the Holy Scriptures

b/ description of Solomon’s actions*32*: the actions are embodiments of thoughts and intentions that are the fruits of the mind

c/ Solomon’s words, which might reveal the state of his mind, his outlook, his convictions, and his miscomprehension – all that made possible the personal apostasy.

English and Russian versions of the Holy Scriptures generously apply the word wisdom to the abilities of Solomon, and classify the qualities, because of which “the whole world/earth/all kings” sought the presence of Solomon, as “wisdom.” According to the referred translations, God “implanted in his heart” or “put in his mind/heart” wisdom {3 Kings 10:23–24 in NRB, NAB, NJB, Russian*33*}.

However, the Septuagint does not speak of σοφια – wisdom – in references to Solomon. There is a text that conveys the words of God Who says that He gives Solomon an understanding and wise heart (καρδιαν φρονιμην και σοφην 3 Kings 3:12}. Other texts of Septuagint use the word φρονησις- common sense, reasoning, reasonableness {e.g., φρονησει, φρονησεως – 3 Kings 10:23–24}, and then, point out that η φρονησις Σαλωμων σφοδρα υπερ την φρονησιν παντων υιων αρχαιων, και υπερ παντας φρονιμους Αιγυπτου – Solomon’s reasoning/understanding exceeded exceptionally reasoning/understanding of all the ancient and all Egyptian thinkers {e.g., in: 3 Kings 3}.

So, what Solomon, in fact, asked from God, and what God gave him?

Solomon asked God to give him a heart to hear the people of God and to divide–for–understanding (discern–determine–comprehend justly), and to understand (recognize) in depth of the good and the evil {καρδιαν ακουειν και διακρινειν τον λαον Σου εν δικαιοσυνη, και του συνιειν αναμεσον αγαθου και κακου  – 3 Kings 3:9}.

In the contemporary terms, it might be said that Solomon asked advanced analytic abilities of the mind, which make possible analysis and complete comprehension of people, events, phenomena, objects [[that is at the levels of Διανοια, Γνωμα ––Φρονημα––Λογισμος, and Αισθητηρια Οργανα that maintain physical existence and survival*34*]].

In response to Solomon’s supplication, God said that He has given Solomon an understanding and wise heart (καρδιαν φρονιμην και σοφην 3 Kings 3:12}.

In such context, the one might interpret the meaning of an understanding and wise heart {καρδιαν φρονιμην και σοφην3 Kings 3:12} as the mind, which possesses the wholeness (mutual co–enhancing perception–evaluation–analysis–comprehension–judgment) and craftiness of reasoning in the world affairs. These features compose the meaning of comprehensive reasoning in application to the mind dealing with the world of the material things, which it has to perceive, to cognize, to comprehend, and then, to utilize for life and survival. In the current terms, it might be said that such a mind has systems thinking. In other words, within three–tier domain of human intellect–intelligence–reasoning, Solomon obtained the optimal potency of two – lower and lowest – levels [[Διανοια, Γνωμα ––Φρονημα––Λογισμος, and Αισθητηρια Οργανα*34*]].

As the first case revealing the Solomon’ reasoning illustrates {judgment on two harlots – 3 King 3:16–28}, Solomon received from God the abilities necessary for an impartial and just judge in human matters, which apparently, should be the inalienable feature of any earthly ruler who is responsible for survival and prosperity of his system.

For instance, the one who wants to judge the people justly, needs to have knowledge of the nature of things with which he has to deal, the law (criteria of judgment) and then, the set of abilities that includes the mental power

 

to compare the actions with the nature and with the law

to understand the reasons of the actions

to  evaluate the impact of the actions onto the others, onto society, or even onto the entire kingdom

to comprehend the consequences of the actions

to devise corrective measures

to prevent negative influence of the actions onto the society (state, kingdom, other system)

 

In general, all these abilities are focused on the world of the material things; consequently, their place is the mind (the Septuagint’s heart, or the heart–mind): the levels of Διανοια, Γνωμα ––Φρονημα––Λογισμος, and Αισθητηρια Οργανα*34*.

Therefore, the Solomon’s level of exceptional comprehension includes the world of the material things, and he received from God all that he asked, even more: all that the mind of a mortal man is able to accept {3 Kings; Wisdom 7:1–23; Psalm 145(146):4}.

However, wisdom is not possession of the mind only. Wisdom is the special state of human soul–spirit–heart–mind, the state of power –

a/ the state of being connected with God, the state of love of God and the state to be loved by God

b/ the state of possession with the knowledge of God

c/ the state of being embodiment of the law of God.

In such a state, violations of the law of God, sin, and apostasy (worship to “other gods” – idol–worship) are not possible. As soon as Solomon’s behavior proves committed violations of the ordinances set by God through Moses and ultimately, apostasy, the one might infer that

1/ “wisdom” as the comprehensive logical operations of the mind based on the comprehensive knowledge of the world of the material things is not enough for achievement of the main purposes of man*35*

2/ wisdom that comes from God and empowers life of the Νους*34* is not the advanced abilities of the mind, which Solomon received from God in response for his supplication and which usually are referred to as wisdom, although they sustain survival of man only within the world of the material things

3/ Solomon did not possess the wisdom as the power to stay focused on the observing the law of God and as the power to withstand inclination to apostasy.

An inclination to apostasy is the main test of vitality, through which any ruler/leader has to pass at the time when the destiny of his establishment/system is determined: either survival (followed with optimization– development of the optimal potency) or initiation of collapse. Consequently, an inclination to apostasy as the desire to stand at the place of God {in: 2 Thessalonians 2:3–12} might be seen as the primary element of the core of destruction, which develops within any system if its center begins pursuit for the absolute power disregarding the axioms that

a/ only God holds the absolute power

b/ any system might survive and reach its optimal potency only if its foundation is the law of God.

In general, the pursuit of the absolute power attracts only the one whose heart–mind has no firm foundation. Three pillars – faith in God, knowledge of God, and love to God – sustain the foundation on which the mind evolves into the invincible system that pursues the purposes set by God.

About ten centuries before Solomon, Job the righteous came to comprehension of the meaning of the wisdom of this world, when he said {Job 5:8–14} that Lord God the Sovereign of all apprehends the counsel of the crafty ones {καταλαμβανων σοφουσ εν τη φρονησειJob 5:12} whose hands shall not perform the truth and on whom the darkness shall come. 

For the Old Testament people, the example of Solomon was not enough – as the Book of Jeremiah reveals, at all levels of the social–political–religious hierarchy of the ancient state, apostasy became the daily routine and idol–worship flourished {Jeremiah}. So, in the time of Babylonian captivity, God gave His people, and especially, their leaders, one more lesson conveyed through Daniel the prophet. The story of Nabuchodonosor the king in Babylon {Daniel 4} teaches that all might, all glory, all “wisdom,” of mortal rulers is nothing before God. God is the Giver of wisdom and understanding {Daniel 2:20–23}; God is the only One giving security in the times of troubles, prosperity in the time of needs, wisdom to the low and afflicted ones, and invincibility to fragile structures of the matter (kingdoms, states, empires, other establishments) that man creates for accomplishment of his purposes – if they are consistent with the will of God.

Therefore, “wisdom” of a mortal man, who either has no knowledge of God or has rejected God, and who then, focused himself on the world of the material things, might be envisioned as the trunk of a tree cut off the root and of branches: it has no actual foundation and it fruitless, because it is not able to prevent collapse of the mortal man’s creation; it is the food of fire – stalk without root and grain {in: Malachi 4:1}, or mutilated tree {in: Daniel 4:1–34}.

Ten centuries after Solomon, St. Paul the Apostle would write that wisdom of this world is foolishness before God {η γαρ σοφια του κοσμου τουτου μωρια παρα τω Θεω εστι1 Corinthians 3:18–20; μωρια – foolishness, irrationality, insanity; παρα – near, close to, before}.

In general, the Solomon’s story reveals inconsistence of the ascribed to him writings with his actions, which ultimately, were completed with apostasy. Such inconsistency sustains the doubts concerning actual authorship of the Books of the Old Testament’s times.

So, what was the Solomon’s “wisdom”?

Although Solomon received the “the wise heart” to judge his people, plus all earthly attributes of king’s power – glory, wealth, abundance of all things, and prosperity, there is no mentioning that he either wanted or was given the knowledge of which Moses asked God {Exodus 33:12–23; 34:1–17} – the knowledge of God the Creator. Furthermore, his deeds*36*, his own words, and especially his book Ecclesiastes, reveal his outlook, which could be the root of his apostasy and susceptibility to corruption by idol–worshipers.

For instance, Ecclesiastes is filled with sadness of the one who knows that one day he will have to leave all he had to the one whom he even might not know, that everything is repeated again and again and in vain*37*. This sadness could be a consequence of the one’s attachment to the visible perceivable plentiful beauty of the material world, while all that is behind the threshold of death is covered with darkness of unknown.

Such outlook appears when there is neither place for faith nor expectation of another life. Such outlook is a feature of the mind that has neither actual knowledge of the human nature nor knowledge of its Creator. Usual companion is materialism*38*, when the visible perceivable world becomes the only one reality of life. The consequences are in a range from

hidden materialism

disbeliefs in official/common religion, acceptance of another religion with the beliefs,

which do not demand rational reasoning (cults, sects, heresies, myths)

atheism and idol–worship (esp., with deification of establishments or their leaders)*6*;

people with such beliefs might quietly live the entire life without revealing own beliefs;

usually they are the buttress of establishments relying onto the power of coercion

depression, which might culminate in development of the mental disorders

leading to the acts of violence toward the others (e.g., crimes) or toward himself (e.g., suicide)

hidden apostasy

open apostasy, which sometimes, might accept the forms of

rebellion against the established law and order (revolutions, unrest), conspiracy,

open betrayal of the interests of the establishments

(e.g., defectors, moles, traitors).

 

So, Solomon the king built the house that became the first temple*39* in Jerusalem: the place where the people would come to pray and worship God and where God would hear the prayers of His creations, heal the sick, and console the afflicted. God promised that He would hear the prayers those who come to seek His presence and ask for His forgiveness, that He would be merciful to their sin and He would heal the earth, which is suffering for the transgressions of men. Yet, God also warned Solomon, that He will remove him from the land and will destroy this lofty house, if Solomon turns away, forsakes the ordinances and commandments of God, and comes to serve other gods (idols) and worship them {2 Chronicles 2:3–5; 6:18–42; 7:12–22}.

At initiation of the temple, Solomon said: The Lord is disposed to dwell in gloom (thick darkness). But I have built the dwelling to His name (for Him), the place to dwell forever {Ο Κυριος ειπε οτι θα κατοικει σε εν γνοφω (πυκνο σκοτασι). Και εγω ωκοδομηκα οικον τω ονοματι Σου αγιον Σοι και ετοιμον του κατασκηνωσαι εις τους αιωνας (Εκτισα σε σενα εναν οικο κατοικησης, εναν τοπο για να κατοικεις αιωνια2 Chronicles 6:1–2; 3 Kings 8:12–13}. He also said that the Lord promised his father – David – that his son would build the house to the name to the Lord, and he, the son of David, has built this house {2 Chronicles 6:7–11}.

The words of Solomon reveal misconception: through Nathan the Prophet, God explained his father that He did not accept David as the builder of His temple. Although chosen to be a king, David is a man of war and he shed blood. God promised that after David’s death, the One from the David’s descendents would build the temple of God, and God would establish His kingdom forever. Although David, by the Spirit of God, called this One the Lord God, still, David interpreted this promise as related to his son Solomon; he collected building materials, and instructed Solomon to build the temple {3 Kings; 1 Chronicles 17:11–14; 22:1–19; 28:2–21; 2 Chronicles 1:13–17; 2:1–18; 6:1–10, 18–21, 40–41; 7:12–22}. Obviously, there is a difference between the actual meaning of the words of God and human interpretation of it: Solomon was not the one who would build the temple for God*39*.

Furthermore, the knowledge of God conveyed through the Books of Moses and known by Job and David does not provide the ground for human opinions concerning disposition of God to dwell in gloom {e.g., in: Exodus 24:9–18; Job already knew that by the light of God he walked through the darkness – Job 29:2–3; then, David – Solomon’s father – blessed and praised God the Creator and envisioned Him as clothed with the light as with garment – Psalm 103(104):1–2}. Presumptions that God the Creator needs any building as “place” or “dwelling” and that His Own creations may build for Him material object – building, in which God will dwell forever, are irrational because they are the attempt to materialize God and they reveal the belief in a possibility of the matter, from which humans make their material things, to exist forever (that is deification of the matter) *6*, and, as such, culminate in idol–worship (that was eventually happened with Solomon).

Solomon’s opinion concerning the disposition of God and concerning his abilities to build the eternal dwelling for God reveal that in him already was the darkness of ignorance and unfaithfulness {of which Lord Jesus Christ would warn His followers later – watch, then, that the light in you is not darkness – in: Luke 11:35} makes understandable the warning of God concerning “other gods” {3 Kings 9:3–9} – the idols. Indeed, Solomon had all he wanted, he did not ask knowledge of God as Moses asked – and received {Exodus 33:13–23; 34:1–17} – he already has his conclusion, he already established his own materialistic outlook as the absolute truth, and he believed that he is the one who has a power to make dwelling place for God, while, in fact, the temple was not his mission. 

Perhaps, the main danger of the apostates for the system might be seen as the loss of the sense of actuality, shift into the realm of imagination: the apostates live in another world inconsistent with their surrounding, because they live by others beliefs and serve other gods. For instance, although every pious man knows that Almighty God is Omnipotent, Solomon attempted to contradict God’s will: he wanted to assassinate Jeroboam (his servant, son of the harlot) to whom the prophet predicted that he would become the king of the biggest part of the divided kingdom. So, Jeroboam fled and lived safely in Egypt until Solomon died, and then, returned in Judea and became a king over the most part of that what was the Solomon’s kingdom {3 Kings 11; 12}.

What then, is the wisdom that Solomon did not have?

The author of the Book of Wisdom writes of himself that he prayed to God and the Spirit of Wisdom came to him, that God gave him “certain knowledge of the things,” and that wisdom taught him {Wisdom 7:17, 22}. The list of the cognized items {Wisdom 7:17–21} includes creation of the world, the nature of the world and operations of its elements, and nature of the world’s inhabitants – either secret or manifest things, many of which still remain beyond comprehension of the contemporary science. However, this knowledge is the secondary, outer layer which corresponds to the world of the material things, and as such, is not all of which the author thinks and writes. The author focuses the attention on the source of all knowledge: the inner wisdom that a human being receives only from God.

The Book of Wisdom [[the Book included in the Septuagint’s Apocrypha under the title Σοφια Σαλωμων]] describes the Wisdom that, in all generations of men, enters the righteous souls – ψυχας οσιας – making them friends of God and prophets {Wisdom 7:27} as

 

the emanation of the power of God and the stream of the absolute glory of the Almighty

{Ατμις γαρ εστι της Θεου δυναμεως, και απορροια της του Παντοκρατορος δοξης ειλικρινης Wisdom 7:25}

having absolute power, observing everything, and omnipresent

{παντοδυναμον, πανεπισκοπον, και δια παντων χωρουνWisdom 7:23}

the brilliancy of the eternal light, yet, although compared with the light, Wisdom is before it

{απαυγασμα γαρ εστι φωτος αιδιουWisdom 7:26; 29}

the spotless mirror of the actualized energy/might of God

{εσοπτρον ακηλιδωτον της του Θεου ενεργειας Wisdom 7:26}

the image of goodness/excellence of God

{εικων της αγαθοτητοςWisdom 7:26}.

the most precious and inexhaustible treasure of man – the answer from God that equips friends

through the gifts of education leading to the right condition/readiness

{Ανεκλιπης γαρ θησαυρος εστιν ανθρωποις, ον οι χρησαμενοι προς Θεον εστειλαντο φιλιαν,

δια τας εκ παιδειας δωρεας συσταθεντες Wisdom 7:14}.

 

One more reference to Wisdom – as to the One possessing the entirety of power, authority, and might to do all and to make all anew {Wisdom 7:27} – completes connection of the Book of Wisdom {in: The Apocrypha} with

– the Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation in which St. John the Apostle conveys knowledge of the Word–God, the Glory of God, through Whom all that exists came into being, Who is the Life and the Light and the Truth and the Way of man, Who transforms slaves into the friends of God and opens for them the eternity with God, and Who makes all anew {John 1; 11:39–44; 14; 15; 17; Revelation 21:5–7, 23}

– the Epistles in which the Apostles write of a new man that is created in Christ and by Christ – the one who is created in likeness of Jesus Christ the Son of God and who, then, becomes the co–worker of God, the field for the works of God, and the building of God, the carrier of the Eternal Light, and the dwelling–place of God in the Spirit: the living temple of the Living God {James 1:17–25; 1 Peter 1:23–25;  1 John 3; 4; Ephesians 1:3–23; 2:4–10, 13–22; 4:22–24; 1 Corinthians 3:9, 16; 6:19–20; Colossians 1:9–23}.

Consequently, the one might infer that the wisdom in the world affairs as a feature of the understanding and wise heart (καρδιαν φρονιμην και σοφην3 Kings 3:12} given to Solomon does not mean Wisdom the Teacher {Wisdom 7:17, 22} and knowledge of the Wisdom the Teacher that enters the righteous souls – ψυχας οσιας {Wisdom 7:27} – and makes people suitable for the purposes of God.

In summary, the descriptions of Wisdom and the actions of Solomon (both conveyed by the Holy Scriptures) lead to conclusion that Solomon did not possess the Wisdom that transforms the righteous men into the wise ones: the friends of God, and the prophets.

Therefore, the main question is answered: the failures of Solomon are the consequences of the absence of the Wisdom, because the Wisdom, as the love of God, comes only into the righteous souls, and vice/corruption cannot prevail over Wisdom {Wisdom 7:27–30}. Hence, although man might be considered as perfect among the sons of men, without the Wisdom given by God, he is nothing {Wisdom 9:6}.

So, all Solomon’s glory, riches, power, judgments, etc. are nothing: as the one who did not observe the ordinances set by God and who became an apostate, he had no Wisdom that comes only as the answer of God to those who

seek God with all the soul–heart–mind

focus on God the entire being and devote to Him the entire life

firstly, be observing His Law and living according to His commandments

cherish knowledge of Him as the only treasure that is needed for obtaining the life everlasting*3*,*4*.

 

 

Conclusion

 

As the Solomon’s story illustrates, only presence of Wisdom empowers a human being to become something for God: His slave, His child, His friend, His prophet, His people – whatever He chooses. If the one has no place for God in his soul–heart–mind, he has no access to the energy of life: he becomes the rotten core, the cancerous cell, the apostate, traitor, rebel, which might corrupt, initiate collapse, and destroy the entire society or another system if it has no protection, no countermeasure, nothing capable to withstand the ones who came to destroy.

The story of Solomon and his kingdom reveals the universal διαφθορον pattern that since initiation was repeated frequently. The history of mankind supplies many examples; some of them are mentioned above – the Philo of Alexandria, Tomaso Torquemada, the papal empire. Destiny of the Byzantine Empire illustrates additional traits of the διαφθορον pattern initiated by the apostasy.

Since the fall of Byzantium, the thinkers, researchers, analysts are seeking understanding of the causes that led to decline and destruction of the most vital and powerful human establishment that ever existed – the Byzantine Empire; they offered different sets of social, economical, and political reasons, including personal traits of the emperors and their courtiers and advisers.

From my point of view, the history of Byzantine Empire provides one more confirmation that none of the human social, political, religious establishments (or systems) is capable of survival, if the rulers

do not withstand inclination to apostasy

elevate themselves or the system they built at the rank of deity.

 

Apostasy [[especially, as an initial ability to discard the belief into the Absolute power of God, subsequent violations of the Law of God – the iniquities and corruption, and the following degeneration that initiates processes culminating in collapse]] defines the nature of any establishment/system that

a/ is not founded on the law of God

b/ has the purposes inconsistent with the law of God

c/ at some moment of its existence disregarded the warning that Moses set before his tribesmen and their future leaders: the warning concerning disobedience to God, violation of His commandments, contacts with the idol–worshipers, and apostasy {in: Deuteronomy 17:14–20;  also, in: Deuteronomy 6:2–7, 13–19; 7:3–6; 11:26–28; 13:1–11}.

Although the Laws of Moses concerning physical life (life of a human body) are not established for the Christians {e.g., in: Hebrews}, The Ten Commandments and the ordinances, which reflect the Universal Law of God that will not pass away until each line of it is fulfilled {Matthew 5:17–20}, remain as the foundation of survival and evolution. The one might be empowered to comprehend the essence of this Eternal Law through the two greatest commandments of God confirmed by the Word–God {Matthew 22:35–40; Mark 12:28–34; Luke 10:25–37} and supplemented by the words of God that are the core of the Christian teachings {Matthew; Mark; Luke; John; esp. John 13; 14; 15; 16; 17}. Therefore, the warning of Moses for the rulers {Deuteronomy 17:14–20} also remains in power until the very institute of human authority exists. However, the position of the human establishments toward knowledge of God foreseen by Daniel the prophet and especially, their open confrontation, which is the sigh of the end of times {e.g., in: Daniel 2; 4; 5; 7; Revelation 17:12–17; 19:19–21}, reveals the διαφθορον pattern in work.

Two events in the history of Byzantine Empire provide additional insight on the beginning processes, which initiate collapse because of apostasy. These events happened long before the Empire entered in the last phase of its existence – visible disintegration – that

a/ began with the inability to foresee the danger of the imperial politics in dealings with the West (the papal empire and its subjects, including Venice and other barbarian states) 

b/ culminated in the subsequent inability to protect Constantinople from the Catholic Crusaders (1204)

c/ was completed with defeat and consequent destruction of the Empire (1453) by the Turks and with the establishment of the Ottoman Caliphate.

The first one: initially, in the fourth century, the emperor was recognized as a bearer of “the image of heavenly empire” and the “friend” of God, who draws his strength from “an imitation of God’s monarchy” [Eusebius (theologian and bishop, IV century) ref. and qtd. in: Meyendorff (1989) 32]; it was the beginning, when the earthly ruler still intended to act as the keeper of the laws and executor of the will of God.

The second one: in the sixth century, one of the Byzantine patriarchs declared that “nothing must be done in the Most Holy Church against the will and commands of the emperor” [ref. in: Diehl 33, 166].

The patriarch’s declaration illustrates that, in the sixth century, the ruling circles of the Byzantine Empire already assumed the right of the secular establishment – the state/empire – to dominate over the Byzantine Christian Church. However, an emperor, as well as any secular ruler, has no authority over the Christian Church. There is only one Head of Church and one Head of all authorities – Lord God Jesus Christ {in: Matthew 28:16–20; Luke 10:22; John 3:31–36; Colossians 1:12–20; 2:9–10}; thus, any attempt to subdue the Church would result in the unavoidable destruction of the self–proclaimed earthly “head of the Church,” usually along with his establishment.

At first, the sacrilege of assimilation of the Byzantine Church by the earthly empire was accompanied with modification of the Church, which submitted itself to the secular authorities and recognized the emperor’s power over the Church, although the Christian Church has the only one Ruler and Authority – the Almighty God.

Then, the following processes [in: Diehl 33, 37, 110, 141, 143–147, 164–165, 167–171; Karsavin 156; Lebedev (1999) 30–32; Pelican 4–5], which are the direct consequences of the assimilation of the Church by the establishment with the coercion–oriented imperial structures, became the traits of the daily life:

– the continuation of inherited from the heathen Roman Empire cruelty and crimes against humanity, the state policies founded on violations of the laws of survival (and especially, the main laws: the law of inviolability of human life, law of freedom of religion, and law of freedom of choice)

– decline in the morality

– corruption and the following weakness and insufficiency of the governmental system

– persecution of those labeled as “heretics” by the imperial power

– political opposition of clergy and monks to the state

– intervention of the clergy into the state affairs

– accumulation of the excessive earthly wealth by some clergymen and some monasteries.

The main reason for the ruin of the Byzantium Empire was the imperial intervention into the Church’s internal affairs and replacement of the will of God by the emperor’s orders: the empire became the institutionalized apostasy, repeated the pattern revealed by the history of the ancient Israel, and as such has been destroyed in consistency with the warning of God given through Moses and the following prophets. The difference was insignificant – just new generations of the destroyers, as it was foreseen by many prophets concerning the means and the people of war who were the weapon of God against ancient Israel and other countries, which rejected God and violated His law {e.g., in: Isaiah, esp., Isaiah  2:6–22; 3; 5:18–30; 10:33–34; 13;  40:6–31; 47:5–15; 65:11–17; Jeremiah, esp., Jeremiah 19; 21; Lamentations; Ezekiel 8; 20; 21; 22; 33:24–29; Micah 2; 3; Nahum; Ambakum (Habbakkuk); Sophonias (Zephaniah); and the others}. Usually, after accomplishing the will of God (destruction of the apostates), these destroyers destroy themselves: through internecine dissention, they become “the divided houses” {in: Matthew 12:25–26; Mark 3:23–27; Luke 11:17} and then, exterminate each other cleaning the stage for the next cycle {e.g., in: Isaiah 9:9–20; Jeremiah 16:16–18; Haggai 2:22–23}.

So, for the Byzantine Empire, the extermination was accomplished by

1/ the army of Crusaders – subjects of the papal establishment, which in 1204, two centuries after the Great Schism*22*, *23*, already became re–incarnation of the Roman heathen empire under rule of pope Innocent III who deified himself*40* and imposed on himself the mission “to reform the Universal Church” [in: Selected Letters of Pope Innocent III… 144], which he pursued with institution of the Latin empire in Constantinople, at the ruins of the Christian temples of God [[the papal “universe” at the ruins of Christian temples existed until 1261, when Michael VIII Paleologus recaptured Constantinople]]

2/ the people of another faith (Islam) who executed the will of God and destroyed the empire, which perverted the ideals of Christianity and put the human (emperor’s) will at the place of the law of God. 

 In conclusion, it might be said that apostasy might be defined as a lethal threat to life and well–being of a human being and to any of systems created by men for their protection, survival, and development.

Civil establishments/systems (e.g., society, state) have at least some means of defense against apostates/traitors who rise up against the system. The overall vitality, then, might be seen as the sum of many factors including consistency of the purposes with the nature, potency, and actions of the system, design of the cohesive power, as well as the access to necessary reserves, efficient system’s operations, esp., surveillance and other methods of control, etc. In general, apostates are the worst threat for insufficient systems incapable of comprehensive analysis of the environment, foreseeing threats, and self–protection.

In religious matter, there is no defense against apostasy; in this case, a creation rebels against the Creator, and it is not in the power of human establishments to prevent personal apostasy or to correct the apostate’s mind.

Historically, the popular method of liquidation of the threat of apostasy was physical extermination of the apostate. However, this method might be likened to mutilating surgery when the malignant tumor is removed, yet the immune system is not strengthened, so the survived or newly perverted cells are spreading all over the rest of the body and generate metastasis, which ultimately would kill.

As the experience of the papal inquisition and other tyrannical and oppressive establishments (starting for instance, from the heathen Roman Empire through the totalitarian states of the Past and Present) illustrates, physical extermination

 

does not work for suppression of beliefs, freedom of conscience, freedom of thinking, and religion

does not secure survival of the establishment.

 

In the terms of systems theory, the one might refer to apostasy as to system’s perversion and degeneration, also known as simplification, when the knowledge with the lowest levels of complexity (which is not sufficient for system’s operations and therefore, survival) takes place of the knowledge of the highest level of complexity (which defines the nature and purposes of the system, determines existence, and secures survival and evolution). From such a point of view, apostasy, as the inner source of destruction, develops

 

either because of the impairment/degeneration of the center responsible for

the system’s wholeness and accomplishment of the purposes for the sake of which the system has been created

or because the system has been built on the false knowledge (or beliefs) and its nature contradicts the law of God.

 

In Christianity, only faith in God, knowledge of God, and steadfast persistent observance of His law might protect a human being from becoming an apostate. Knowledge of the Word–God that is the eternal life, freedom that is given by the Word–God and that accompanies God the Spirit, and love of God {John 4:23–24; 8:31–36; 14:6–26; 15; 16; 17; 2 Corinthians 3:17–18} are the best protection of the Christians, their families, and their communities against apostasy, heresy, and other spiritual and moral plagues, which destroy life of persons, families, societies, and other establishments. The outer/manifest actions of those who live free in love of God and by knowledge of God include

1/ learning–absorbing–sharing knowledge of God conveyed by the Holy Scriptures

2/ guarding themselves against idols of any kind

3/ steadfastly keeping and observing the commandments of God

4/ separating themselves, their personal life, and their families from the apostates (as well as of heretics and the corrupted ones) and excommunicating them until they reconcile their differences and doubts in the matters of the Christian faith and discontinue violations of the commandments of God {e.g., in: 1 John; 1 Corinthians 5; 2 Corinthians 6:14–18; Galatians; Ephesians; 1 Thessalonians 4; 5; 2 Thessalonians 2:7–17; 1 Timothy; 2 Timothy 2; 3; 4:1–5; Titus; esp. Titus 1:10–16; 3:1–11}.

Otherwise, the ignorance leads to the inability to discern the good and the evil, to separate the truth from lies, the reality of righteousness from myths and propaganda of corruption and vice. Then, apostasy begins to pervert the mind of those of whom God says that {in: Isaiah 29:13–15; John 3:19–21}

 

they honor Him with their lips, but their heart is far from Him

they teach the commandments and doctrines of men instead of the law of God

their works are in darkness, and eventually, they depart into darkness.

 

The worst danger is the so–called “secret knowledge,” or “secret wisdom” of heathens and heretics that fills the unclean and ignorant mind, in which there is no place for the Word–God, deceives the reason, and leads man from God {e.g., in: Isaiah 47:5–15; 59:4–11}. The destiny of ancient kingdom of Israel reveals the danger of such knowledge, which works as the lethal poison of viper*41*.

For a Christian, the unfailing – absolute – protection from apostasy is presence of the Word–God: only if the Word–God becomes the στερεωμα*8* of human soul–heart–mind and the structure–essence–power of the inner man*9* fashioned after the Word–God, the danger of apostasy vanishes (or becomes irrelevant as any evil is irrelevant for the Christian who lives by God).

 

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈

Notes:

 

*1* Concerning the Absolute Good, see postings in Folder Archive_2013:

The Absolute Good – Page 9_November_2013

 The Starting Point, The Methods of Learning, and The Nature of Knowledge – Page 1_January_2013

The First Word of Human Wisdom – Page 2_February_2013

The Abundant Good – Page 2_March_2013

 

 

*2* For Christians, faith is the highest wisdom, the optimal state of the human reasoning/mind, because faith is the proof of the presence of Αγια Σοφια – the Holy Wisdom of God, Λογος, the Word–God, Who is της  πιστεως  Αρχηγον  και  Tελειωτην, the Author/Chief of faith and the One Who completes, makes perfect, consummates faith – within the human mind.

Concerning faith, see

Introduction to Christianity: Faith – Folder Foundation, Page 4

The Creation of Man – Folder Archive_2013, Page 8_September_October_2013

 

*3* See postings:

Folder Archive_2010, The Place of Knowledge – Page _October, 2010;  

Folder Archive_2012, The Excellence, and The Virtue and SurvivalPage 6_July_2012

Folder Archive_2013, The Creation of Man: Process –  Page 8_September_October_2013

 

*4* See postings:

Folder Archive_2008_2009:

The True Vine, and The Seal – Page 1_2008

Imagination – Page 2_2008

The Secret Things – Page 4_2008_2009

Those Always Learning – Page 7_2008_2009

Folder Archive_2013:

The Nature of Knowledge – Page 1_January_February_2013

The Focus  –  Page 2_March_2013

The Shift  – Page 3_April_2013

 

*5* Apostasyαποστασις,  αποστασιον – usually is interpreted as departure, deviation, disaffiliation, and revolt.

As derived from

απο–  particle that carries multiple meanings including 1/ out, without; by, through, and 2/ indicator of cause and origin

and

either  στασιμος  - stable, steady, balanced, quiet,

or derivative στασιαζω – to rebel, revolt, argue, fight, stir up, instigate revolt against

αποστασιον might convey two meanings:

1/ explicit – departure from foundation, rest, balance, point of view, outlook

2/ implicit – rebellion–revolt–fight against something original, established

 

*6* Idol–worship is materialization of the idea of God the Spirit: the material objects take the place of God in the human mind. Such material objects–substitutes of the true God are creations of and from earth/dust, starting with stone and wood figurines and statues (e.g., statues of Phoenician idols – Baal, Moloch, and other deities of heathens, before which humans and animals were sacrificed), through deified beasts (e.g., as direct embodiment of Orphic serpentine theology – snakes, reptiles, and beasts of all kinds – see Heathenism and  Ancient Civilizations: Legacy Overview), through deified men (e.g., pharaoh, king–priest, pope, leader of party/state, any ruler), and finishing with deified figments of human imagination (for instance, idea of the state, empire, absolute power, omnipotent science, doctrines and ideologies of different kinds).

See postings:

Folder Archive_2010: Idolatry – Page 4_September_2010, and Heathenism – Page 5_October_2010

Materialism – Folder World & War

Download the files @ website Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net/ :

The World & The War @ Page LIBRARY_2

Ancient Civilizations: Legacy Overview – Page LIBRARY

 

*7* The canon law of the pope Gregory IX Liber Extra (1234), compiled by the papal saint and inquisitor Raymond of Peñafort describes a heretic as the person who has different understanding of the articles of faith and “thinks ill” about the Church’s sacraments. From six ways to identify a heretic, four ways consider opinion, interpretation, doubts, and only two mention actions: separation from the believers and separation from the papal church [in: Beinart 214–215; Peters 63, 92]. If people betrayed by informers as heretics denied accusations, they were tortured. The potential informers or targeted persons were compelled to confess or provide information by different means. For instance, according to Haim Beinart, the Spanish Inquisition required the Rabbis “to threaten with a ban Jews” who intentionally did not inform the Inquisition against those Conversos who continued to observe the Jewish rituals [Beinart 215]. “Conversos” were the Jews who under the threat of deprivation of property and expulsion from country converted into Catholicism. To illustrate, at least partially, the scale of the Inquisition’s operations: in the end of fifteenth century about 1/3 of Spanish Jewry (half a million) were “Conversos” [in: Beinart 211].

Also, see postings Heresy, and Priest – Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page_2_2008

 

*8* Στερεωμα of the human soul–heart–mind is the Word–God – the knowledge of God (His Law, His will, His commandments, His mercy, His Perfection and His Love – the Absolute Good) that is the everlasting life {John 17:3, 6}: this knowledge makes possible life by the Holy Spirit.

In general, στερεωμα is the framework or foundation for the set of energy fields made for transformations of the divine energy into a particular structured matter (e.g., water of the sea, dust of the land), the components of the world accommodating existence of mankind. Στερεωμα of this world is a particular manifestation of the universal order/arrangement/code that sustains/defines/creates divisions among the energy fields allotted for the cycles of energy transformations creating the perceivable structures of the matter at different levels of complexity. Life of the particular beings – inhabitants of the world composed with the structures of the matter – is possible only under the Heaven: within the στερεωμαfixed arrangement of the energy fields with the limits, which humans measure with such parameters, for instance, as pressure, temperature, light, darkness, radiation, and so on (see the).

See also

posting The Abundant Good – Folder Archive_2013, Page  2_March 2013.

the following:

1/ Psalm 17(18):1–2: Αγαπησω Σε, Κυριε ισχυς μου. Κυριος Στερεωμα μου, και καταφυγη μου, και Ρυστης μου {I love Thee, O Lord, my strength. The Lord is my Firmament, and my refuge, and my Deliverer – Psalm 17(18):1–2}

2/  Folder Archive_2012:

The Foreknowledge and The Plundered People – Page 2_February_2012,

The Future – Page 3_March_2012,

The Perception and The Trust – Page 4_April 2012

Note 4 to The Lessons of the Vineyard: Slavery and Freedom – Page 5_May–June_2012

3/ Folder Systems, Page_2 – Pattern #11

 

*9* The inner man {ο κρυπτος της καρδιας ανθρωπος, the hidden heart of man – 1 Peter 3:4}, or the essence of a human being, is the soul–heart–mind purified and sanctified by the Word–God and prepared for coming of the Divine All–Consuming Fire {James 1:18; 1 Peter 1:17–23; 3:4; 1 John 3:1–6; Ephesians 2:13–22}.

God is the Spirit and He seeks those who worship Him in spirit and truth: God sees, judges, corrects, purifies, heals, illuminates, perfects, and leads the inner man – soul–heart–mind {1 Kings 16:7; Psalm 16(17):3; 17(18):28; 18(19):7–11; 22(23); 30(31):1–5; 31(32); 32(33):13–22; 36(37); 43(44):21; 93(94):8–15; 102(103); 106(107); 138(139):1–18; Isaiah 58:2–14; Zacharias 7:4–10; Matthew 6:16–18; John 4:19–24; Romans 10:12–13; 1 Corinthians 6:1–8; Colossians 2:2–23}. The actual life is life of the human spirit devoted to God – the incorruptible quiet and meek spirit who, as St. Peter the Apostle writes, is of great value before God, whom St. James the Apostle envisions as the firstfruit of creations of God born by the Word of Truth, and of whom St. John the Apostle and St. Paul the Apostle write as of spiritual man that carries the likeness of God from the Heavens – Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God {John 1:1–18; 3:13; James 1:18–25; 1 Peter 3:4; 1 John 3:1–2; 1 Corinthians 15:45–58}.

The inner man might be envisioned as the incorruptible immortal being born of God and fashioned by God for everlasting life {John 1:1–13; 3:3–7; 15:1–2; James 1:16–18; 1 Peter 1:13–25}, as the invincible indestructible system–particle of the eternal reality, as the one

– who is the co–worker (συνεργος) of God, a field (γεωργιον – earth of work) of God , and construction (οικοδομη) of God {1 Corinthians 3:9}

– who, in the next phase of life shall become the slave of God who sees the Face of God, has the Name of God on his forehead, serves God, and reigns with God forever and ever {Revelation 22:3–5}.

 

*10* Concerning the Inquisition, see posting The Church Militants –  Folder Political Theology.

Some excerpts from the offered posting and The Invincible Empire:

 

“…The official purpose of the Inquisition was preservation of the papal faith expressed as the particular body of knowledge political theology or the theological doctrine of the papal church of Rome from wrong interpretation, amendment, or expressed openly disbelief.

The historical facts lead to the conclusion that the main objective of the Inquisition was not preservation of the Christian faith established by God and the Apostles: the very existence of the Inquisition is the evidence, which confirms absence of the Christian Faith. The main objective was protection of the political conglomerate of the papacy with the West European states through establishment of unconditional obedience of laity, kings, and members of the papal hierarchy to the Roman pope. Only the pope could change the unified body of knowledge, beliefs, and practices, which expected to secure the social stability and worldwide expansion of the papal authority. The Inquisition fought the mortal combat for survival of the Superstructure of the papal church of Rome; however, what were the means to secure survival, and what were the results.

In 1542, the pope Paul III instituted the Universal Inquisition headed by the Jesuit order for suppression of the Reformation [[quite logical continuation of the career for the Loyola’s flagellants trained in blasphemies against Lord God Jesus Christ]]. The Universal Inquisition did not permit legal assistance for the accused [Trager 182]. It employed all experience of persecution and extermination of the heretics and exercised all available authority; however, it was not able to stop expansion of the Reformation and to prevent further degradation of the papal power.

The Inquisition was designed as the self–sufficient establishment, which would be capable of conducting the complete cycle of eradication of the heresies and maintaining the social stability of the papal hierarchy. At the beginning, the Inquisition’s cycle of activities included: search, detection, investigation, judgment, and execution of the heretics (executions were conducted through the civil authorities).

Initially, the practices of the Inquisition resembled the judicial procedures of the heathen Roman Empire [in: Peters 15–17]. These practices were modified and improved to accommodate the increased scale of operations. Few insignificant restrictions were imposed by the necessity at least apparently to adhere to at least some Christian traditions; for instance, officially, the civil authorities themselves, not the papal clergy, burned at stake the heretics after they were “released” by the papal Inquisition.

Contrary to the papal expectations, the Inquisition became the core of destruction, perhaps, even one of the main reasons of an inability of the papacy to keep the unity of the faith and sustain the papal authority over the European states indefinitely. The Inquisition violated the main laws of survival – inviolability of human life and freedom of choice granted by God, and discarded the main conditions of life established by God Himself. Through the Inquisition, the papacy

1/ violated the God’s commandment “thou shall not kill” {Exodus 20:15}

2/ fostered the slavery–based society with such meaning of the common good, which justified murder, greed, betrayal, perjury, lawlessness, – the society, where the main condition of survival was violations of the main commandments of God

3/ established the unconditional slavish obedience and the informer mentality as the role models or as the main criteria of compliance with the expectations of the ruling hierarchy

4/ substituted the terror of evil for two rules of interrelations when disagreements arise within the Christian communality:

– the only way of treatment of wrongdoers, mentioned by Lord God Jesus Christ, is brotherly persuasion and consequent excommunication – if the wrongdoers refused to listen

– the evil must be mastered/overcome/conquered with the good

5/ discarded the axiom that judgment belongs to God; instead, the papacy sacrilegiously applied to justification of own actions the warnings of God about His last judgment

6/ fully implemented and diligently protected Aristotle–Aquinas political theology based on misinterpretations of the Scriptures and heathen philosophical speculations, which for the papacy, supplanted the Law and the word of God.

Although the Inquisition persecuted the heresies, which existed as the societies and organized groups capable of mobilizing their members against the papacy, at the same time, the heretical doctrines, originated with adaptation of the concepts of Plato, Aristotle, ibn Rushd (Averroës), freely corrupted the minds of papal theologians [e.g., Maycock 258]. According to Henry C. Lea, the wide acceptance of the Manichæan/Albigensian heresy in the thirteenth century became possible because of corruption of the papal clergy. The corruption of clergy and the controversial modification of the orthodox order of the Eucharist caused revolt of the Hussites in Bohemia in the fifteenth century [Lea 2:506].

Yet, instead of correction of the papal practices and behavior of the papal clergy, the papacy evoked the doctrine of absolute obedience of its subjects and employed the Inquisition for extermination of those who acknowledged corruption of members of the papal hierarchy and did not accept the heretical innovations of the papacy. For instance, when in the fourteenth–fifteenth century, the papal church of Rome withdrew the Cup from laity but kept it for the clergy, it triggered the revolt of the faithful Christians in Bohemia, under the leadership of Jun (John) Hus. Yet, according to Capistrano the Inquisitor, the Church must not consider arguments of the Bohemians (who justified their “heresy” with “the ancient Scriptures and observances”), because a servant is not superior to a master: disobedience is heresy [Lea 2:473–474].

However, only slaves have the duty of unreserved obedience to their master and only slaves do not have the right to speak to their master without the master’s permission. Yet, slavery within the Christian Church cannot exist because slavery – the evil establishment of men – is abomination to God and, as any evil, is not able to exist in His presence: where is slavery of the spirit, there is no God. Any establishment, which practices any form of slavery, contradicts to the Law of God, therefore, is not compatible with Christianity: Capistrano the Inquisitor with his own words portrays the papal church as a heretical non–Christian establishment.

The Aquinas’ assertions that scientia divina controls the sciences along with ignorance and illiteracy of the inquisitors activated the movement for separation of the theory of knowledge and sciences from their natural basis – theology and philosophy. Thanks to the Inquisition, one of the most dangerous concepts was re–introduced to the life of the society: the Aristotle’s assertion that sciences must not speak about the good and virtues; their starting point should be “appropriate to the matters in hand” [Aristotle Magna Moralia I.i.14–26]. This assertion and separation from theology and philosophy originated the concept of moral neutrality of sciences: the accumulation of data and its interpretation according to the imaginary worlds created by researchers replaced the good of man as the natural purpose of any quest for knowledge. One of the products of the “morality free” sciences – the new image of man or “the robot model of man” [von Bertalanffy (1967) 7–14] – discloses the consequences of “freedom” from theology and morality.

In the twentieth century, the Inquisition received new name: in 1965, it was “The Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith” (“the Holy Office” is the alternative title since the sixteenth century). According to Alan L. Maycock, the contemporary Inquisition with “wise and generous use of its authority” still performs its duty without any “breach of continuity” or “change in the teaching of the Church” [Maycock 263–264].

Perhaps it means that the purposes, principles, and functions are the same; only the appearance and methods have been changed, because the stake and torture disappeared (at least apparently) from the contemporary legal practices within the European countries. Its contemporary activities, as much as it is open to the public, are concentrated on the censorship and prohibition the books, which can cause detriment to the papacy.

According to Cardinal Merry del Val, Secretary of the Supreme Holy Congregation of the Holy Office (in 1929), the Inquisition continues the censorship as “the duty and consequently the sacrosanct right to prevent error and corruption.” Simultaneously, the Cardinal advises that the prohibition of books must not be called a “violation of liberty” [Cardinal Merry del Val ref. qtd. in: Burman 209–212].

However, the prohibition to read a book is the restriction of the access to the information and knowledge and simultaneously one of the main methods of social stabilization widely employed by totalitarian states (especially, communist, Nazi, and fascist), cults, the clandestine groups at the service of the oppressive regimes, etc. If the deprivation of the freedom of information [[freedom of information is the right of any thinking human being]] is not the violation of liberty, which abyss of slavery is the violation of liberty for the papal hierarchy?

Even today, the phenomenon of the Inquisition did not receive the universal evaluation. The idea of inflicting the evil for the sake of the good, or securing the good by any means, the evil included became the justification for committed by the Inquisition crimes against humanity; consequently, it became the rationale for the oppressive social and political structures. The states accepted the inhumane judicial techniques, brutal methods of interrogation, and violation of human freedom as the normal procedures because the papal Superstructure sanctioned them for its own subsystem – the Inquisition. The papal encroachment on freedom revived the worst times of the pagan Antiquity, because in the A.D. second century, Christian thinkers, philosophers and theologians already recognized freedom as the fundamental human right (e.g., the works of Tertullian).

The design and pattern of actions (especially use of informers) of the Inquisition became the blueprint for the protective and oppressive structures and organizations of many states (e.g., Gestapo in Nazi Germany and KGB in communist Russia). In return, those who tasted the methods of the oppressive structures also accepted the idea to fight the evil with the evil and under the name of revolution applied this idea to the destruction of their governments and societies.

For example, the French revolution (the eighteenth–nineteenth centuries) in the deadly chain of coups d'état has established the ideals of liberty, equality, and brotherhood by physical extermination and mass executions, at first, those who ruled before, then, those who executed the previous rulers, and subsequently, the executioners of the executioners. In the twentieth century, this idea grew up into the unprecedented by their scales persecutions and executions in countries under the communist and Nazi regimes, which widely applied the experience of predecessors.  In particular, post–1917 Russia repeated the French pattern: 

– in 1917–1929 – mass exterminations of pre–1917 Russia’s rulers, aristocracy, priests, researchers, military elite, wealthy merchants, the different–minded, and  the followers of all religions

– in 1930s – during the “purges” – termination of executors, executioners, and survived fellow terrorists–comrades who realized the bolshevist revolution and destroyed the Russian Empire in 1917–1920.

Some researchers stress the efficiency and effectiveness of design and work of the Inquisition as the “great system of anti–heretical machinery,” the “permanent part of the machinery of the Church,” and the most efficiently organized system of persecution [Burman 222; Lea 1:335; Maycock 104].

Such evaluation prompts the same old question that hunts many historians and researchers: in which temporal scale and with which outcome it is proper to speak about efficiency. Perhaps, the way to find the answer would be an analysis of the ultimate results: had the considered system achieved the purposes of its existence or not.

In general, to speak about efficiency of the Inquisition means to speak about efficiency of extermination of human beings for their beliefs. Indeed, the Inquisition works sufficiently with respect to a particular human being who was burned at the stake, because it terminates his physical presence at the Earth and blocks him from dissemination of his ideas, for example, as it happened with Jun Hus, Savonarola, and many others. However, the knowledge of truth created by the executed thinkers continues to live in the minds of people: the Inquisition is unable to terminate the knowledge along with its creator, while the knowledge always is the main threat to the papal Superstructure.

Therefore, to speak about efficiency of the Inquisition means to speak about efficiency of extermination of human beings for their beliefs. Indeed, the Inquisition works sufficiently with respect to a particular human being who was burned at the stake, because it terminates his physical presence at the Earth and blocks him from dissemination of his ideas, for example, as it happened with Jun Hus, Savonarola, and many others. However, the knowledge of truth created by the executed thinkers continues to live in the minds of people: the Inquisition is unable to terminate the knowledge along with its creator, while the knowledge always is the main threat to the papal establishment.

The Inquisition had three centuries to flourish and achieve its purposes, and it failed: its power over the human life was terminated within the societies, which accepted the Reformation and discarded the papal claims on the absolute power along with the papacy itself. Moreover, the Reformation became the main evidence of the failure to achieve the papal purposes by the means of the Inquisition.

The opinion of researchers concerning the Inquisition depends on their religious beliefs: the pro–Catholic authors appeal to understanding and forgiveness, or attempt to justify the Inquisition’s deeds; other authors consider it as the criminal institution.

The following list (1 through 7) illustrates the range of opinions.

1/ The Inquisition must be understood as inevitability in the historical setting, because with such understanding, it can be forgiven and placed behind with the consequent advancement “in the march of civilization.” Consequently, the Inquisition must be seen as an inevitable episode in the history of struggle with heresies: “it was not the horror it is usually imagined to be,” and the Inquisition’s reputation is distorted and falsified. Besides, its “cruel violence” has no foundation in the doctrine of the Church of Rome [Willett 7, 23, 91, 93].

If to consider the Church of Rome in its original condition during first centuries of existence of Christianity, when she kept the apostolic traditions and, as the community – Εκκλησια – organized by St. Peter and St. Paul the Apostles, remained the substantial authority in the matters of the Christian faith – the part of this claim is true: Christianity does not coexist with “cruel violence.” If to apply this assertion to the papal establishment built upon the Church of Rome – this claim contradicts to the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas and his followers who justified the Inquisition, tortures, death penalty, maiming, and robbery of men with the falsification of the word of God.

2/  The Inquisition is a protector of the papacy and

– the institution striving for the social order and for the progress of civilization against “the heretical forces of disruption and decay,” because during the Dark Ages, the papacy represented the unity of the Church and society and was the center of European part of the Christendom

– the institution driven by “public opinion of the medieval Europe,” with the inquisitor as a priest and “an official of the spiritual power,” whose the only concern was salvation of the souls [Maycock 104–105, 122, 256–257].

3/ The Inquisition was not an arbitrary devised organization; it was the “natural... inevitable – evolution” and the political necessity (for example, condemnation and execution of Joan d’Arc); it was the weapon of the “political aggrandizement,” which also “prostituted the name of religion to the vilest temporal ends” [Lea 1:iii; 3:371, 650].

4/ The Inquisition is a permanent and vital institution of the Church of Rome under the papacy, because the spirit of the Inquisition is the spirit of “the Church itself” [Rule 5–6].

5/  The Inquisition was “a powerful agency of terrorism” [Barnes 364].

6/ Christianity is the ideology of “ecclesiastico–politico–financial organization,” which established the Inquisition for own defense; however “was Christianity worth preserving?” [Burman 223].

7/ Adolf Hitler blamed “Christianity” [[in fact, the papal faith/Catholicism/Aristotle–Aquinas’ political theology]], for “the first spiritual terror” brought into the “free” heathen world, and Rosenberg propagated his own mythical cult of the Nordic blood on the presumption of the “Christian” terror [Hitler (1940) 676; Note in: Hitler (1940) 676].

Some of the referred above opinions connect the Inquisition with religion, Christianity with the terror of Inquisition, and the papal church of Rome with the Christian Church. The question about worthiness of Christianity signifies that in the minds of some people the Inquisition with all its crimes became the natural part (perhaps even the embodiment) of the papal church of Rome. The papacy constantly declares own superiority, asserts dominion over all Christendom, and claims that the Roman pope is “the successor of the prince of Apostles,” “the Vicar of Christ at the Earth,” and the universal infallible teacher/shepherd of all Christians. At the same time, with the blessing of its head – Prefect–superior–pope, the Inquisition indeed, unleashed spiritual and physical terror blasphemously covered with the name of Christian God. Consequently, it is understandable that the papal Inquisition does represent the practical embodiment of Christianity for the non–Christians and deters them even from a desire to learn about the Gospel of Lord God Jesus Christ. Such perception is the worst inheritance of the Inquisition. Such perception is the consequence of political theology – the unforgivable crime, which the papal establishment has committed against God, against all Christians, against the Universal Christian Church, and against all those unknown people who did not come to the true knowledge of God, because of the deeds of the papacy.

 However, the very existence of the Inquisition is incompatible with Christianity, and the quasi–religious or “ecclesiastico–politico–financial organization” – the papal church of Rome, which had demonstrated its destructive potential with the sacrilege and destruction of the Christian temples of Constantinople, killing of “the Greeks” – the Greek Christians, with the crimes of the Inquisition, with centuries of struggle for political power, with scandals of the last years, which exposed corruption, abuse of children, and financial problems improper for any (even heathen) religion – is not the Christian Church.”

End of excerpts

 

*11* See posting Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas – Folder Heathen Philosophy

Concerning treatment of the heretics – according to Thomas Aquinas [Summa Theologica]:

1/ the Church cannot imitate God in His mercy to the relapsed sinners [Summa Theologica II–II Q.11 a4 ro2]

2/ heretics ought to be separated from the Church and handed over to the secular authorities for extermination “from the world by death” [Summa Theologica II–II Q.11 a3]

3/ to maim a human being is consistent “with natural reason in relation to the common good” [Summa Theologica II–II Q.65 a1 ro1]

4/ the business and “a grave responsibility” of prelates is “to correct by means of punishment” [Summa Theologica II–II Q.33 a3]

However, God neither authorized the papacy to punish the sinners nor commissioned the self–appointed “vicars” to bear the “grave responsibility” to burn His sheep at the stakes. These assertions confirm that Aquinas’ doctrine has nothing in common with Christian teachings of love and mercy

5/ the good consists from two parts: the main part of charity, that is the spiritual good or the health of a soul, and the secondary good, that is the temporal good – life, property, good repute, etc. The believers should wish their neighbors the spiritual good; however, charity does not bound the believers to wish their neighbors the secondary good, except when such good would be helpful for the neighbor’s soul [Summa Theologica II–II Q.11 a4 a].

This assertion directly contradicts to the Law of God – The Ten Commandments, the good of the neighbor {Exodus 20:13–17; Leviticus 19:11–18} includes all the temporal goods, which – according to Aquinas – the believers have no duty to wish their neighbors:

–– do not kill – that is about the neighbor’s life

–– do not bear false witness against the neighbor – that is about the neighbor’s good repute

–– do not steal and do not covet anything that belongs to the neighbor – that is about the neighbor’s property.

The Aquinas' assertions justify Crusades, religious wars, robbery of those who were labeled as heretics, and other crimes against humanity committed by the papal subjects.

Then, Aquinas asserts that if one member of a community possesses some secondary good and the possession might become the obstacle for the eternal salvation of other members of the community, the good of many must be preferred the good of one, and the members of community are not bound by charity to wish their neighbor the secondary good, which could obstruct their eternal salvation [Summa Theologica II–II Q.11 a4 a].

Aquinas correlates the salvation of the papal subject’s soul with deprivation of a neighbor of his temporal goods that is another contradiction of the Scriptures. In fact, with such assertion, Aquinas abolishes the commandments of God (love to the neighbor) and introduces his own market–driven classification of good.

Besides, the eternal salvation of man does not depend on deprivation of man’s neighbor of his material possessions; with these assertions, the main papal theologian

a/ directly injects Aristotle’s materialism into the article of papal faith

b/ substitutes heathenism for the Christian teachings

c/ justifies inhumanity and corruption as the norm of life for the papal subjects.

All these inconsistent with the Christian teachings assertions of Thomas Aquinas have the practical purpose: to justify death penalty for the heretics and disobedient papal subjects and to mold the conscience of the papal subjects, so, they would without any hesitation inform against their neighbors and betray them into the hands of the Inquisition.

 

*12* See posting in Folder Heathen PhilosophyWorks of Philo of Alexandria, Page  4

 

*13* Tomaso de Torquemada (1420–1498), Catholic of Jewish descent, became a confessor of Isabella of Castile (the queen of Spain after unification of Castile and Aragon, in 1479), and in 1483, the Grand Inquisitor of Spain – who pursued extermination of Judaism and Jews on the territories controlled by Spain. He had two purposes related to persecution of those who confessed the religion of his ancestors:

– persecution of so called Marranos, or crypto–Jews, false conversos, those who converted in Catholicism because of fear and threats of confiscation of property, and exile, yet who secretly continued to observe the Laws of Moses; the inquisition headed by Torquemada condemned about two thousand of human beings to be burned at stake; many were imprisoned and severely punished

– expelling of the Jews who did not convert in Catholicism; ultimately, the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, after the show–trial organized by Torquemada, when eighth Jews were convicted in ritual killing of a Catholic child and burned at the stake, although the only “evidence” were self–accusations under tortures [References in: Flinn 604–605; Küng (1982); New Catholic Encyclopedia 14:113–114; and the others].

Numerous online publications concerning Torquemada, the Inquisition, and especially, the Spanish Inquisition, which Torquemada organized and headed about eight years, can be found, for example, through Bing search. However, most of the publications refer to Catholicism – official doctrine of the papal church of Rome (that is Aristotle–Aquinas’ political theology) as to Christianity, while the very references to Catholicism as to Christianity and to the inquisitor as to Christian are blasphemy against God and the grave insult to Christians.

Concerning the papal inquisition and the irreconcilable difference between Catholicism and Christian teachings, see postings in Folders:

Heathen PhilosophyWorks of Augustine of Hippo and Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas – Pages 6 and 7

Political Theology  all three pages

 

*14* The following examples (1 through 6) illustrate the connections between the inhumane practices in all times, all countries, and all oppressive structures: indeed, all evils have one root, and the same essence; only appearances might be slightly changed because of the different historical settings.

1/ In Spain, in 1412, the Jews had to put the yellow marks on their garments. The papal Council of Basel–Ferrara–Florence–Rome in 1431–1445 decreed that the Jews must “be compelled, under severe penalties,” to wear the garments, which distinguish them from the Christians [Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils 483]. As Franciscus Willett notices, Nazis revived the same practice in Germany in the twentieth century; indeed, Adolf Hitler proclaimed that his actions regarding the Jews repeat the actions practiced by the Roman Catholic papalchurch [Willett 83–84; Adolf Hitler ref. in: Chidester 496]

2/ Some researchers connect the persecutions of the Jews and the Moors by the Inquisition in Spain in the fourteenth century with the idea of “racial purity” and eagerness of Spanish nobility to access the property of wealthy Jewish and Moorish families. The Nazis also confiscated property of the Jews whom they sent into the concentration camps for extermination

3/ The methods, which the Inquisition used to detect the Jews who after the forceful conversion strived to keep their own manner of life (especially, under Torquemada’s leadership in Spain), resemble the methods used by the pagans in fourth–third centuries B.C., when king Antiochus decided to forcefully convert the Israelites into the heathenism {2 Maccabees 7}. The pagan ruler and the Inquisition both searched for their victims through monitoring of the manner of life and food habits

4/ The Inquisition in Spain introduced the innovation, which also was implemented (along with the idea of “racial purity”) by the Nazis in the twentieth century: it established comprehensive control over the books. It began in 1319 with the Hebrew books, which the Inquisition confiscated when it searched houses of the Jews in Toulouse; in Granada, Cardinal Ximenez, who forced conversion of the Moors, had burned over a million volumes  [in: Rule 39; Burman 197]. Then, prohibition of the “heretical” literature became the official practice: for the possession or attempt to import “heretical” books, the book–lovers received the penalty of death. Since 1540, the Inquisition systematically publishes the Index of the prohibited books, which are forbidden for the Catholics.

5/ In 1229, for the sake of “prevention of heresies,” the Inquisition prohibited reading of the Bible by all Catholic laity. In direct contradiction to God Who instructed His disciples to proclaim the Gospels to all nations, translations of the Bible into the European native languages became the crime punished by death. In October 1536, William Tyndale was burned at the stake for translation of the Bible in English, yet, his work laid the foundation for other versions, including those known as “Geneva Bible” (1560) and “King James’ Version” (1611). The deprivation of the word of God resulted in catastrophic impediment of development of the European civilization. Gar Baybrook names the suppression of the Bible, acceptance of the heathen beliefs as the articles of the Catholic faith, and “the dictatorial methods” of the papal hierarchy as the reasons why the history of mankind has “the Dark Ages” [Baybrook 427–428, 603–605; Grun 168, Trager 108].

Deprivation of the knowledge of the Gospels facilitated misinterpretation of the Christian teachings for the sake of interests of the papacy. For instance,

1) the papal theologians Henry of Susa (1271) and Jean d’Andre (1348) invented and propagated the special “law of Christ” [Vacandard 128], with which they justified the papal habit to burn human beings at the stake

2) the papal Council granted the Catholics who expel heretics (and apprehend their land for occupation by the Catholics) the “holy privilege” of the Crusaders [Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils 234]. Many generations of the Catholics believed that the Inquisition is in fact the “holy office,” which acts according to the Law of God. Consequently, they betrayed their neighbors to the Inquisition, participated in torturing and execution of the victims, and enriched themselves with the property of the executed “heretics” and the expelled non–Catholics.

6/ Writings and speeches of two Catholic clergymen illustrate the degree of knowledge and completeness of the acceptance of the Hitler’s acts and plans by the members of the papal hierarchy:

1/ Catholic priest Senn named Hitler “the tool of God, called upon to overcome Judaism”

2/ Catholic Army Bishop Rarkowski recited the prayer: “Bless Oh God, our Führer and Supreme Commander in all tasks placed upon him.” After invasion in Russia, Rarkowski proclaimed: Hitler is “the savior and champion of Europe,” who “discovered the life principle of the German people,” embodies them “by his acts,” and has to perform the tasks similar to those of the Teutonic Knights [[in the thirteenth century, the order of Teutonic Knights with sword and fire attempted to convert the Russian Christians into Catholicism]]. Then, in his pastoral letter (1942) Bishop Rarkowski explained to the German Catholics that behind the commands of Hitler “the Führer and Supreme Commander” – whatever the commands are – “stands God Himself with His will and command” [Senn and Rarkowski ref. and qtd. in: Lewy 239–242, 279].

Catholic Bishop Rarkowski and Catholic clergyman Senn successfully continued the rich tradition of blasphemies against God by mentioning Hitler in connection with God and asking the blessing of God for the Hitler’s crimes. Simultaneously they disclosed their reverence to their superior by adding Hitler the Führer to the pantheon of the supreme beings such as the “Supreme Teacher” the pope. The Catholic Bishop Rarkowski’s ability to discern the good and the evil, thus, to foresee the consequences of the acts of men, and his meaning of “life principle of the German people” might be inferred from the historical fact that Hitler’s acts culminated in

a/ genocide, which resulted in assassination of 14 millions of Jews and “racial inferiors” (Gypsies, Slavs)

b/ estimated 54.8 million death of people from 57 nations during World War II

c/ immeasurable suffering of countless human beings during all years of the Nazis at power and World War II [in: Trager 893, 894].

Besides, if the Catholic bishop of the twentieth century still cherishes memory of the crimes committed in the thirteenth century by Teutonic Knights who continued the traditions of the Crusaders, there is no reason to assume that anything ever can be changed in the outlook of the members of the papal hierarchy. For instance, does the world have any assurance that if today another Hitler arises and promises the papacy world domination, or the current re–incarnation–successor of Innocent III decides to inspire new Crusade against the Christian Church, members of the papal hierarchy would not praise and glorify them and cover their crimes with the name of Christian God?

 

*15* See posting The Hierarchy – Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page_6_2008_2009

 

*16* See The Vineyard, Folder Archive_2012, Page 5_May_June_2012

 

*17* Solomon built the temple to the name of God, as the place of worship where God hears the prayers of His people. Yet, the temple was built with participation of proselytes living in the Solomon’s kingdom and subjects of Chiram the king of Tyre. The temple was filled with the objects made by the heathens, although before entering the Promised Land, the chosen people were barred from any contacts with the idol–worshiping nations. In due time, the contacts with the heathens and other violations of words of God conveyed through Moses led Solomon the king in Jerusalem to apostasy, and triggered the ruin of his kingdom/state {e.g., marriage with the Egyptian woman – daughter of Pharaoh, multiplication of chariots and wealth, taking women of the idol–worshiping nations and building places of worship to their idols – Deuteronomy 7:1–6; 17:14–17; 29:16–18; 3 Kings 2:45–46; 4:34; 3:1; 7:13–51; 9:9–28; 10:23–28; 11:1–40}.

After Solomon died, and his son Roboam born by the Ammonite ruled over Juda, the land was filled with abominations of the idol–worshipers and evil of the native nations removed by God for settlement of the Israel. Then, the pharaoh of Egypt, came into the Jerusalem and took all treasures from the house of God and from Solomon’s house {3 Kings 14:21–26}: whatever was made by the heathens, came to the heathens.

Afterward, when kings apostates ruled over Jerusalem, the temple was tore down and the treasures made for temple use were taken for the heathen rites for Baal (or Moloch – the main idol of Israel accepted from the Moabites and Sidonians/Phoenicians who sacrificed their children and animals to male idol and sent their daughters into the temples to practice the “sacred” prostitution as the ritual of worship to the female idol). It happened, for instance, when Gotholia the idol–worship usurped the throne {2 Chronicles 23; 24:7}. When the ancient kingdom–remnants of Solomon’s kingdom (which, as the people believed, was destined to exist forever) collapsed under attack by the Babylonian empire, and the Solomon’s temple was destroyed, the temple’s treasures also came into possession of the heathens {e.g., Daniel 5}. Indeed, nothing devised or made by idol–worshipers ever is accepted by God.

Concerning Phoenicians, see postings:

The Shift and The Creation and the Renewal – Folder 2013, Page 3_April_2013

Folder Archive_2008_2010:

Wisdom – Page_1_2008

The Curse of Cain – Page_5_2009

The Heathenism – Page 5_October_2010

 

*18* See postings in

Folder Archive_2012: The Vineyard, and The Lessons of the Vineyard – Page 5_May_June_2012

Folder Archive_2011: The Rejected Knowledge, and The Earth without the Foundation – Page 2_April_May_2011

Folder Archive_2008_2009: The Hierarchy – Page 6_2008_2009, The Nations and The Ancient Kings – Page_8_2009

 

*19* Download file: Ancient Civilizations: Legacy Overview – Page LIBRARY, website Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net/

 

*20* The pope instructs his subjects: “without the pope, spiritual life of the Christians leads to the “deplorable ruin,” and the eternal salvation cannot be found [Mystici Corporis Christi. Encyclical of pope Pius XII On the Mystical Body of Christ. 1943. http:// www. vatican. va/ holy_father/pius_xii/ encyclicals/documents/hf_p–xii_enc_29061943_ mystici–corporis–christi_ en. html; §65, 87]

This particular papal assertion reveals the attempt to put the pope at the place of the Holy Spirit, because according to the words of God {John 1; 3; 6:44–45; 14:6–28; 15; 16; 17} (and consequently, according to the Christian teachings), salvation and eternal life of man are obtained only through the Holy Spirit sent by God the Father in the Name of Lord Jesus Christ. Mortal man is not able either to lead to God as Lord Jesus Christ does or to give salvation to his fellow mortal man as God does. Therefore, the pope ascribes to himself the power of the Holy Spirit, as well as the authority of God the Father and the grace of Lord Jesus Christ: the papal assertion is blasphemy against God and self–deification.

Then, the pope, a mortal man pretending to be “the vicar of God on earth,” asserts that it is the dangerous error to believe that it is possible to accept Christ “as the Head of the Church, while not adhering loyally to His Vicar on Earth.” Those who take away the visible head (that is the pope) can neither see the eternal salvation nor find it [Mystici Corporis Christi. Encyclical of pope Pius XII On the Mystical Body of Christ. 1943. http:// www. vatican. va/ holy_father/pius_xii/ encyclicals/documents/hf_p–xii_enc_29061943_ mystici–corporis–christi_ en. html; §40–41]; also [ref. and qtd. in: Church, Papacy, and Schism: A Theological Enquiry 60].

This papal assertion contradicts the words of God that only by the will of God the Father, through Lord Jesus Christ, man comes to God the Father, therefore, obtains the life everlasting {John 6:44; 14:6; 17:1–26}. Again, the pope ascribes to himself the authority of God the Father and the power of the Word–God: the papal assertion is blasphemy against God and self–deification.

The meaning of loyal adherence to the pope is unreserved obedience to the pope. The meaning of “unreserved obedience” might be inferred from the writings of Ignatius of Loyola who asserts that “the Church militants” (the papal subjects) must put aside their own judgments and see the white as the black if “the hierarchical Church so stipulates” [Ignatius of Loyola Spiritual Exercises §352–365; Personal Writings 356–358].

For instance, Ignatius of Loyola instructed his followers – the Jesuits: obedience is the distinctive feature of the Jesuits; it must be prompt and complete even when the superior’s orders the things “difficult and repugnant to sensitive nature” [[probably, Loyola meant tortures by the inquisitors, political assassinations, deceit, espionage, and other works of the papal empire–keepers, which compose the history of the papacy – see recommended references below]]. Any Jesuit has to achieve complete abnegation of own will and judgments; he must obey “blindly, without inquiry of any kind” to the superior who holds the place of God or the place of Jesus Christ, has “His authority,” and is “obeyed in the place of Christ.” The subjects must realize the will of superior as the will of God, and the superior’s wish must become own wish of the subject: when the superior gives orders, his voice must be recognized as the voice of God or as the voice of Christ. For any Jesuit, to “maintain a right mind in all things” means to put aside all own judgments. Such obedience is justified with “the whole natural order, the hierarchies of angels, and well–ordered human institutions” [in: Ignatius of Loyola Spiritual Exercises §365; To Rector and Students of the College in Coimbra, 1548, §3–4,7; To Fathers and Brothers in Portugal, 1553, §2–3; On Prophecies and Revelations, 1549, §35, 47; The Final Word on Obedience §2 in: Personal Writings 358; 200, 202; 222, 226, 252; On Perfect Obedience in: Counsels for Jesuits 76, 78, 81; The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary Norms III.284; IX.765 §20 123, 365].

Consequently, the follower of Ignatius of Loyola Jesuit prelate Cardinal Bellarmine proclaims that the papal church must “blindly renounce all judgment of her own” even if the pope errs, and “consider sins good and virtues evil” if the pope so commands [Bellarmine ref. and qtd. in: Baybrook 277].

Ignatius of Loyola’s instructions illustrate the application of the ancient practice of conscience re–programming for the sake of substitution of the idol – deified superior for God; the proclamation of Jesuit prelate Cardinal Bellarmine illustrates the results of Loyola’s training.

In fact, the referred above assertions of the popes who put themselves at the place of God and demand loyalty, which is due to God, illustrate the apostasy at work and some of its consequences:

a/ the true apostates who rejected Christian teachings and accepted Aristotle–Aquinas’ official theology as the official doctrine of their religious establishment, yet continue to use Christian terminology, decry as heretics those who reject the papal faith and either adhere to Christian teachings or chose another religion; during centuries they put to death those of the “heretics” who were in their reach [see the history of papacy and the papal inquisition in the References]

b/ those who elevates themselves at the place of God at His temple – the heart–soul–mind of man {as in: 2 Thessalonians 2:3–12} – exterminate and persecute the people who either remain loyal to God or chose follow own imagination better than to accept the imposed mental terror into which the papacy transformed Christianity

c/ substitution of the idol–worship and political aspirations of man for Christian teachings and pursuit of the good and eternal life.

 

See analysis of the Aristotle–Aquinas’ doctrine – the official dogma of the papal church of Rome, including Aquinas’ image of God, concepts of deification of the pope and unreserved obedience (with the references to sources) in the following postings:

Folder Archive_2008_2009:

The Priest, and Heresy – Page_2_2008

The Hierarchy  – Page_6_2008_2009

Folder Heathen Philosophy:  Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas

Folder Political Theology: Political Theology, The Hierarchical Church, and The Church Militants

 

See also Ecumenism in Folder World & War @ this website, or download file @ website Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net/ : The World & The War –  Page LIBRARY_2

 

*21* See posting Works of Friedrich Nietzsche – Folder Heathen Philosophy, and The Invincible Empire, Chapter 8

 

*22* See postings:

Note 1The Potential of the Mind – Folder Archive_2008_2010, Page_4_2008–2009

The Fruits – Folder Archive_2010, Page 2_April_June 2010

Ecumenism in Folder World & War @ this website, or download file @ website Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net/ : The World & The War –  Page LIBRARY_2

The Invincible Empire, Chapter 7

 

*23* In 1204, when the Crusaders captured Constantinople, the Roman pope Innocent III expressed joy and called the capture “magnifica miracula” [Innocent III’s letter qtd. in: Runciman 151]. Historically, murders, pillage, destruction accompanied all military invasions, and it is not proper for the Christian to feel joy because of suffering and death of people and to continue to identify himself as the follower of Lord God Jesus Christ. The history preserved another example of joy experienced by another Roman pope: in 1572, after the St. Bartholomew’s Night in Paris, when the Catholics killed approximately 50,000 Huguenots, the pope Gregory XIII congratulated queen–mother Catherine de’ Medici and ordered to celebrate the massacre with lightening of bonfires [Trager 197]. Therefore, it looks as some kind of papal tradition or the special rite of papal worship: the papal subjects exterminate schismatics and heretics and plunder their wealth to make their superior–pope to feel joy and celebrate death of human beings created in the image and after likeness of God Whose place on the earth this superior pretends to have.

To illustrate the Constantinople’s story: the Crusaders–Catholics (led by the Venetian Doge and the princes from French and German royal houses) committed sacrilege, pillaged and ruined the Christian temples, murdered men, raped and killed children and women – the Greek Christians, set on fire libraries, and plundered houses. Among the temple robbers was German clergyman and preacher Martin of Pairis “the pious Abbot,” whom the pope Innocent III encouraged to inspire the Crusaders. The other crimes committed in the temples of God by the Crusaders–Catholics are so despicable [e.g., in: Runciman 145, 149–151] that I am not able to mention them.

The response of the papal Council to the Greeks after sacrilege of the temples of God and sack of Constantinople was unambiguous: “comfort themselves like obedient sons” of the mother – “holy Roman church” [Canon 4 of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) in: Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils 235–236]. Then, the Innocent III’s self–imposed mission “to reform the Universal Church” [Selected Letters of Pope Innocent III… 144] began with establishment of the Latin empire in Constantinople, at the ruins of the Christian temples of God.

None of political, religious, or other reasons can justify the committed evil or erase it from the memory. The Christians never considered retaliation for the atrocities of the papal subjects – to retaliate means to become the same kind of criminal. However, it must be admitted: the history confirms that the Catholics–papal subjects had received back, with the abound and running over measure {Luke 6:38} and through their own doing, everything they gave their victims, especially, through disintegration of the morality and loss of dignity of their superiors and shepherds, atrocities of the Inquisition, and acceptance of the Aquinas’ version of the heathenism – Aristotelian–Aquinas political theology. In the thirteenth century, the Catholic crusaders defiled the altars of Christian God, shed blood of the Greek Christians, and committed unspeakable crimes in the Christian temples in Constantinople; in the twenty–first century, the leprosy of heresy and of vice remains unhealed:

–– in all Catholic churches under the papal jurisdiction the laity still is deprived of the Eucharist with the life–giving Blood of Lord God Jesus Christ

–– still there are the Catholic clergymen who rape children of the papal subjects in the papal churches.

 

Concerning the Great Schism, Crusades, and the Inquisition, see also

 

Encyclopedia of the Vatican and Papacy. Ed. Frank J. Coppa. Westport, Connecticut:  Greenwood Press, 1999.

New Catholic Encyclopedia. Washington, DC:  The Catholic University of America, 1967. 17 vols. (recommended edition of 1967, because the following edition offers the modified history of the Inquisition and other historical events)

Lea, Henry Charles. The Inquisition of the Middle Ages. New York:  Harper & Brothers, Franklin Square, 1887. 3 vols.

Lacouture, Jean. Jesuits:  A Multibiography.  Trans. Jeremy Leggatt. Washington, D.C.:  Counterpoint, 1995

La Due, William J.  The Chair of Saint Peter:  A History of the Papacy.   Maryknoll,   New York:   Orbis  Books,  1999

Lewy, Guenter. The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany. 1964. Boulder, Colorado:  Da Capo Press, 2000

Maycock, Alan L. The Inquisition from Its Establishment to the Great Schism: An Introductory Study.  With an Introduction by Ronald Knox. New York and Evanston: Harper & Row, 1969.

Rule, William H. The Brand of Dominic, or Inquisition at Rome “Supreme and Universal.”  New York:  Carlton & Phillips, 1853.

Runciman, Steven. The Eastern Schism:  A Study of the Papacy and the Eastern Churches During the XIth and XIIth Centuries. Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1955. New York:  AMS, 1983 (reprint)

Savitsky, Alice A. The Invincible Empire. Washington, DC: The AEHESIA® Services, 2003.

Sherrard, Philip. Church, Papacy, and Schism:  A Theological Enquiry. London:  SPCK, 1978

Sherrard, Philip. The Greek East and Latin West: A Study in the Christian Tradition. London:  Oxford University Press, 1959

Vacandard, Elphege. The Inquisition: A Critical and Historical Study of the Coercive Power of the Church. 1915.  Trans. from the 2nd edition Bertrand L. Conway. Merrick, New York:  Richwood Publishing, 1977

 

*24* See analysis of the Aristotle–Aquinas’ doctrine – the official dogma of the papal church of Rome and its consequences

in the following postings:

Folder Archive_2008_2009:

The Priest, and Heresy – Page_2_2008

The Hierarchy  – Page_6_2008_2009

Folder Heathen Philosophy:  Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas

Folder Political Theology: Political Theology, The Hierarchical Church, and The Church Militants

Ecumenism in Folder World & War @ this website, or download file @ website Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net/ : The World & The War –  Page LIBRARY_2

in my book The Invincible Empire

 

*25* See postings in Folder Archive_2008_2009: The Priest, and Heresy – Page_2_2008

 

*26* See posting Works of Augustine of Hippo, Folder Heathen Philosophy: 

 

*27* See: Concluding Observations on the Second Periodic Report of the Holy See. The UN. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Committee on the Rights of the Child. Report distributed January 31, 2014. CRC_C_VAT_CO_2_16302_E.pdf

As of today, the link to the UN Report is still available through U.N. Slams Vatican Over Child Abuse Cover-Up @ World Time website @  http: // world.time.com /2014/02/05/u-n-slams-vatican-over-child-abuse-cover-up/

Magdalene laundries: Ireland accepts state guilt in scandal – http: // www. guardian.co.uk/ world/2013/feb/05/magdalene-laundries-ireland-state-guilt

Scathing UN report demands Vatican act against child sex abuse – http: // www. euronews.com/ 2014/02/05/scathing-un-report-demands-vatican-act-against-child-sex-abuse/

Scathing U.N. report demands Vatican act against child sex abuse – http: // www. reuters.com/article/ 2014/02/05/ us-vatican-abuse-un-id USBREA140K620140205

The U.N. Confronts the Vatican –  http: // www. nytimes.com/2014/02/06/opinion/the-un-confronts-the-vatican.html?src=recg

 

*28* See posting Ecumenism in Folder World & War @ this website, or download file @ website Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net/ : The World & The War –  Page LIBRARY_2

 

*29* Some of the Aquinas’ assertions (referred below) might facilitate understanding of the nature of the papal establishment. Through the doctrines of faith, law, obedience, and moral perfection, Aquinas elaborated the ideals (and the bureaucratic machine for their embodiment into the life of papal subjects) of freely accepted slavery and submission to the absolute spiritual and secular authority of the “divinely appointed functionary” – the Roman pope.

For instance,

1/ Concerning the law–establishing authority: by the grace of the papal office, the “divinely appointed functionary” becomes the possessor of the special power as the earthly substitute for God, and, logically, should be the source of knowledge about God, the highest authority in interpretation of the Scriptures and divine laws, and the source of human laws

2/ Concerning the law: the law must have the common good as its subject; otherwise, the law is not just. The law should have the coercive power to exercise “an efficacious inducement to virtue”; the coercive power is vested in the group of people or in some public figure, which has to promulgate the law to make it work. Such a public figure, or the sovereign who promulgates the law, “is above the law” because he can change the law. Consequently, the man whom God granted the “special power” can dispense from the divine law, even may allow the law not to be observed, and such dispensation benefits the common good [Summa Theologica I–II Q.90 a2, 3, 4; Q.96 a5; Q.97 a4].

Obviously, Aquinas shares the Thrasymachus’ point of view:  justice is the privilege of the strongest imposed on the weakest “moral simpletons” who must act for the advantage of their ruler [Plato Republic 343c].

3/ Concerning the specific virtue of authority: prelates and princes, although they are wicked, should be honored because they are “standing in God’s place” and are “having a share of the dignity of God”: even “a fool honored if he stands in God’s place or represents the whole community” [Summa Theologica II–II Q.63 a3]

This particular Aquinas’ assertion had led to the complete moral degradation of the papal clergy. For instance, in 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council attempted to reform the morals and behavior of the clergy and to restrain “clerical incontinence.” Three centuries later, the Council of Trent (1545–1563) [[which, according to its participants, was guided “by the mind and spirit of St. Thomas” [Walz ref. in: New Catholic Encyclopedia 14:134]]] declared that the “priests who are in mortal sin” still discharge their duties “by the power of the Holy Spirit” received in ordination [Decrees of Ecumenical Councils 242, 707]. The rationale for such a conclusion obviously has the following Aquinas’ assertions:

– “members of Christ by the actual union of charity” are free from mortal sins [Summa Theologica III Q.8 a3 ro2]

 – “all the consecrations of the Church are immovable” and the sacramental power received by consecration remains in men as long as they live, even if they become heretics or schismatics (in support of this assertion, Aquinas refers to the altar, which is not consecrated again “unless it has been broken up”) [Summa Theologica II–II Q.39 a3].

The presumption that the papal clergy in the state of mortal sin is able to continue the priest’s mission prompts some questions:

– if an ordained priest, supposedly such as Jun Hus, became a schismatic, and all the Church’s consecrations are not removable, – how it is possible for the papal church, which pretends to be the Church of God, to put to death the man who still possesses “the power of the Holy Spirit” received in ordination, or just any man – the temple of God in whom the Spirit of God dwells {in: 1 Corinthians 3:16–17}? If the sacrilegious words against the Holy Spirit are the unforgivable sin, how then, is the crime of the papal church in the case, when it puts to death man who is the dwelling of God and carries the Spirit of God?

– what if an altar was defiled? If it is not possible to make the sacrifice to Holy God at the defiled altar, how it could be possible for the defiled by mortal sin man to act with “the power of the Holy Spirit” received in ordination?

This particular canon of the Council of Trent and its source – the Aquinas’ assertions – disclose the peculiar assumptions integrated into the official doctrine of the papal church of Rome: wicked men are capable of standing at the place of God and having a “share of the dignity of God” because of their status within the papal hierarchy, and man in a state of the mortal sin can discharge his duties “by the power of the Holy Spirit.”

According to St. John the Apostle, man who commits a sin “is of devil” {1 John 3:4–10; 5:16–17}; according to the Council of Trent, those who commit a mortal sin (or as St. John the Apostle wrote, are “of devil”) can act with “the power of the Holy Spirit.” Evidently, the Council of Trent assumes that the power of God can be bound by men in such a degree that even man in a state of mortal sin, who has rejected God [[otherwise he would not commit mortal sin]], still possesses the power received when he was ordained. It means that with this assertion, the Council of Trent incorporates into papal dogma–Catholicism the heathen belief in the ability of man to bind and control deity with magic rituals or rites of worship and ascribes to the man “of devil” the ability to act “by the power of the Holy Spirit.” 

The assertion of the papal dogma that man in a state of the mortal sin can discharge his duties “by the power of the Holy Spirit” is the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit; only this one article is enough to prove the incompatibility of the papal dogma with Christianity.

Sin is a state of the freely chosen death – death of the soul, which rejected God; although the soul is immortal, without God it does not have life, because if it does not live in God, it dwells in death. Man sanctified by the Word–Truth of God is born of God; he dwells in God Who is perfect love, and he is the dwelling of the Holy Spirit of God. Such man cannot sin: sin is lawlessness and “he who commits sin is of devil” {in: John 1:1–13; 8:43–44; 14:15–23; 17; 1 John 3:1–15; 4; 5; James 1:13–15; 1 Corinthians 3:16–17; 6:19–20} [St. Maximus the Confessor 34 in: The Philokalia 2:244; St. Gregory Palamas §8 in: The Philokalia 4:295].

The mortal sin and the life in God are incompatible: the mortal sin is called “mortal” because the sinner freely has rejected God – the source of life. The evil and mortal sins of man do not exist in presence of God: either man has the Spirit of God or he is in the state of mortal sin. Therefore, any assertion that the priest in the state of mortal sin still could be the priest or could act with the power of the Holy Spirit received in ordination, contradicts the Scriptures and the Christian dogma: the assertion that God dwells in the sinner along with mortal sin is sacrilegious because it implies that God dwells with the evil. The Aquinas’ positive correlation of mortal sin and of the status of clergy is incompatible with the Christian teachings; it illustrates the consequences of the Aquinas’ misinterpretation of the Scriptures, pride, and unsubstantiated claims on the exclusiveness of the papal hierarchy.

There are additional aspects of the Aquinas’ assertions concerning the “dignity of wicked.” In other texts, he writes (1 through 4):

1/ by sinning, a man accepts “a slavish state of beasts”; with the references to Aristotle, Aquinas makes conclusion that a sinner is worse and more harmful than a beast; therefore, to kill a sinner is as good as to kill a beast [Summa Theologica II–II Q.64 a2]

2/ the wicked sinners, if they are prelates and princes, stand at the place of God and have a “share of the dignity of God” [Summa Theologica II–II Q.63 a3]

3/ although to kill a wicked sinner is the service for the sake of the good of community, the common people – “private persons” – have no right to kill a wicked ruler or tyrant, it will be dangerous for the community and for its rulers; only public authority can sanction murder of the wicked sinners, theft, robbery, etc., – anything that a perfect community needs to protect its common good [On Kingship VI.47 in: The Political Ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas 190; Summa Theologica II–II Q.64 a3, a6; Q.66 a8]

4/ disobedience to the commands of the superior is a mortal sin because disobedience contradicts to the love of God (as the violation of His commandments) and to the love of neighbor because the disobedient does not render his obedience to the superior, therefore deprives the superior from what is “his due”; however, if the ruler usurped the power, or his commands are unjust, his subjects should not obey him except accidentally, “in order to avoid scandal or danger” [Summa Theologica II–II Q.104 a6 ro3; Q.105 a1, a2].

Thus, according to Aquinas, the place at the papal hierarchy protects the wicked sinner–beast from just punishment (murder or execution) even if he endangers the same common good, which Aquinas usually asserts as the highest priority. The place (even if it is usurped place) at the hierarchy also provides its occupant with the right on the unreserved obedience because the Aquinas’ conditioning “to avoid scandal or danger” might be applied to any situation of the public life, and the definition of disobedience as the mortal sin is the unchangeable background for any Aquinas’ reference to the papal authority: in the Aquinas’ world, subjects have no right to decide; their duty is complete obedience. Even such crimes as murder, robbery, etc., committed under command of the superior, are not a sin, yet, disobedience to the earthly rulers (including the wicked and unjust sinners) is equated with the mortal sin, which endangers the post–mortem destiny of the soul. The place at the hierarchy makes a wicked sinner worthy of honor, signifies his superiority, secures obedience of his subjects, and even reserves special connection with God (“standing at the place” and having “a share of the dignity” of God). With this particular “bold renewal” of the Ten Commandments, Aquinas completed the substitution of the rules of Plato–Aristotelian utopias for the Law of God.

Through the centuries, it was held as the truth: thoughts and deeds (therefore, the degree of perfection of soul and mind), make man suitable for the God’s purposes or transform him into the weathered branch, which will be cast away. Lord God Jesus Christ denounced the corrupted priests and scribes and dined with those whom the priests and scribes called “sinners.” Therefore, the status, the absence of the status, and the conviction by the corrupted priests cannot save or ruin a man or make him close to God, because God rises up children of Abraham from stones and makes a king from a shepherd. To the contrary, the Aquinas’ speculations, which became the articles of the papal faith, are intended to substantiate that the status within the papal hierarchy transforms man into a saint and assimilates him with God. It means that Aquinas substitutes “the grace” by the power of papal office for the grace of God.

In addition, Aquinas introduces the degrees of perfection, beginning with the concept of the state of perfection for bishops and believers, and constructs the structure of the establishment intended to accommodate all ambitions of the members of the papal office; the summary of his assertions concerning the exclusive status of the papal hierarchy might be summarized with the following arguments:

– the more the Israelites worshiped God the greater became their excellence over the other nations; the more men are united to God the better they are; likewise, the state of clergy is better than the state of laity

– the Episcopal Office (the high level of papal hierarchy) has the greater perfection than any religious order (establishment, group), which consists of religious people – the believers. The believers can reach the state of “perfection of divine love” only through the life–long commitment to the Church, confirmed with three mandatory vows: poverty (giving up all the material possession), chastity (the denial of marriage and earthly ties with other people), and complete self–denial (unreserved obedience to the superior). These three vows reveal the meaning of “the death for Christ” as “the abnegation of self–will” and submission of own life, will, and conscience to the complete control and government by the others

– the clerical office is “superior to the monastic life” and even to the religious life. The very fact of admission to the Episcopal Office assumes the believer’s perfection [Summa Theologica I–II Q.98 a5 ro2; The Religious state XV–XVII, XIX–XX 85–87, 92–93, 104, 107, 113–114].

The Aquinas’ vision of the papal hierarchy reiterates the ideals of the Manichean “Perfected,” the Plato’s class of guardians of the perfect community, and the Aristotle’s social and political concepts, especially concerning the comparison of man–social animal with “bees or other gregarious animals” and the “master⇐⇒slave” pattern as the foundation for the perfect community, where a master decides should his slaves have children or not [Aristotle Politics I.2.1253a; 1.4.1253b, 1254a; 1.5.1254a–b; The Oeconomica 1.v.6]. Working bees, which are deprived of the reproductive function, have the responsibility to gather food and maintain life of the bee–hive and especially, to serve the queen–bee. The slaves, whose natural attachment to their offspring would be detrimental to the master’s wars or other affairs, are not permitted to beget children without their master’s consent: they exist only to serve the master’s bodily needs.

Aquinas elevates the level of the papal hierarchy over the community of the ordinary people – the believers or the laity, and over ordinary monks. In this case, perfection implies that a member of the papal hierarchy by the grace of papal office possesses the infallibility of judgment and the right of obedience of the others. Then, Aquinas correlates the desire to serve God with the necessity to accept the unconditional obedience [[in fact, complete slavery]] to the superiors. If human beings created for happiness and love desire to serve their Creator as the Catholic/papal priests, they have to reject the precious gifts with which God blessed man {Genesis 1:27–28; 9:1}. With the transformation into the papal subjects, they must give up the natural way of life for the sake of service to the purposes of their superiors. Could the mandatory unnatural way of life be the explanation of the specific problems with the clergy’s corrupted morality and “incontinence,” which the papacy experienced in such a degree that it even had to declare that the priests in the state of mortal sin are still able to perform their service to God? Would not it be an explanation why the papal hierarchy tolerates and protects pedophiles and mortal sinners who sexually abuse children and ruin the faith of adults [in: Decrees of Ecumenical Councils 707; VII. Cooperman, Daly, McGrory, O’Toole, Powell, Williams and Cooperman]?

Aquinas asserts that man also must obey to the fellow man in such matters where “the superior stands between God and his subjects.”  Consequently, the religious people have three degrees of obedience: in the regular mode of life, that is sufficient for salvation, then “perfect obedience” in all lawful matters, and the “indiscreet obedience” in the unlawful matters [Summa Theologica II–II Q.104 a5, a6].

Although Aquinas apparently recognizes that man should obey only God in the matters concerning his soul, he simultaneously establishes one more peculiar article of the papal faith: “the superior” can stand between God and man; the subjects had to obey a superior as “God Himself” since they “obey him in God’s stead”: the superior’s command is the rule of the subject’s will [Truth Q.23 a8].

No man can stand between God and other man; no man can stand at the place of God; whichever matters Aquinas might consider, his assumption is sacrilegious because it makes man (who is able to stand between God and another man or at the place of God) more powerful than the law of God and at least, equal to God. Yet, with this particular Aquinas’ blasphemy, the papal hierarchy asserts own right on the place between God and His creation and re–directs the focus of man’s existence from heavenly God to the earthly superior.

The Aquinas’ doctrine of obedience culminates in the very noticeable notion of “indiscreet obedience.” It introduces the model of perfect behavior for the subjects unconditionally devoted to the pope. These subjects include those members of the religious orders, societies, and other establishments within the papal hierarchy who actualizes the papal policies concerning the rulers of the states and their subjects, and for whom the pope is actual/corporeal earthly god–substitute for Christ with the absolute power over human life and over post–mortem destiny of soul.

The history preserved examples of indiscreet obedience of the subjects of the papal Superstructure; e.g., Dominican monks (whose religious vocation normally would be prayers for the souls of all people including the kings and the works of charity and mercy) served the Inquisition; one of Dominican monks assassinated Henry III, king of France.

The Aquinas’ doctrine of obedience is the logical completion of two inconsistent with the Christian teachings assertions: the Augustine’s concept of coercion in the name of love (Compelle Intrare) and the papal right to absolve the sins of inhumanity committed for the sake of the common good. Since, the papal hierarchy achieves its purposes through the human beings in “the state of perfection” that are absolutely obedient to the papacy, absolved from the sins of inhumanity if they had been committed for the sake of interests of the papacy, and freed from freedom of choice, freedom of thought, and any earthly tie and obligation.

Aquinas portrays the Roman pope as the ruler and supreme judge endowed with the perfect/plenary power and extolled above all laws. Unquestionable obedience to this visible ruler, whose shoe or hand the believers (including the kings and other leaders) have a privilege to kiss during the ritual of obeisance, is asserted as the condition of salvation and eternal life. Probably, Thomas Aquinas has earned canonization for such representation of the pope, or at least it was one of the main reasons for the references to Thomas Aquinas as to the “angelic doctor,” and the “greatest philosopher” of the papal hierarchy. The acceptance of his doctrine as the official doctrine of the papacy confirmed transformation of the Church of Rome into the political organization that is maintained by the people deprived of freedom and natural mode of life (similarly to the Plato’s guardians), yet, Aquinas defines this establishment as the “God’s kingdom upon earth” [The Religious State XIX 104]

Aquinas proclaims that the supremacy of the Roman pope over rulers of the earthly states is absolute and has the power of the divine law, which, according to Aquinas, is based upon the words, with which Lord God Jesus Christ explained that He has all authority in heaven and earth {in: Matthew 28:18}. He declares that Christ granted St. Peter “supremacy over his brethren” and corroborates the assertion of the absolute power and supremacy of pope with the reference to the Gospel, yet, without disclosing the source of quotation [in: The Religious State XIX 106]. In the Aquinas’ context, it happened when God commissioned St. Peter to feed His sheep {in: John 21:15–22}. However, there is no one word in any one of four Gospels, which confirms the assertions that God gave St. Peter supremacy over all other Apostles (made him the “prince of Apostles”) and granted St. Peter the special power, which other Apostles did not receive: Aquinas again uses own fantasies and falsifies the Holy Scriptures.

This Aquinas’ unsupported reference to the Gospels reveals continuation of the Philo–Origen–Augustine’s practice of confirmation of own fantasy with modifications and additions to the word of God; nevertheless, the assertion of equality of the pope with St. Peter the Apostle and then, with Lord God Jesus Christ, became the strictly guarded papal dogma. Consequently, Aquinas describes the Roman pope as the exceptional public figure who, by the will of God, “holds the apex of both powers, spiritual and secular” because in the person of the pope the spiritual and the secular power are unified. All kings must be subjects to “the successor of St. Peter, vicar of Christ, the Roman Pontiff ... just as they are subjects to Our Lord Jesus.”  The kings are “vassals of the Church,” and the pope is a “head of the republic of Christ,” therefore, the papacy has the right to punish disobedient rulers: the proclaimed by pope excommunication releases the subjects of the apostate king “from his control and from their oath of fidelity” [Aquinas’ Contra Errores Graecorum, Quaestiones Quodlibetales, and other works qtd. in: Bigongiari xxxiv–xxxv; Summa Theologica II–II, Q. 12, a2].

If the secular rulers are the unreservedly obedient servants of the deified pope, who ever would dare to accuse the pope and the papal superiors (prelates, bishops, priests) or to hold them responsible for their crimes?

 

*30* The cohesive power is the main system–maintaining force:

– it realizes, directs, and maintains circulation of the intra–system energy–information flow and the information exchange with the environment

– it unifies all system’s components into the purposeful wholeness.

– it regulates creation of new knowledge and circulation of accumulated knowledge.

The cohesive power is manifested through the flow of data–information–knowledge, which circulates within the system and supplies the system’s components with data–information–knowledge that sustains and controls their existence.

See posting Introduction to the Systems, Folder Systems, Page_1

 

*31* Isaiah the Prophet (VIII BC) conveys the revelation of the future – the end, which is set for the Earth and her inhabitants:

1/ because of their wrongdoing and iniquities, the chosen people became abomination to God {Isaiah 59:1–15; 64:5–7}

2/ the name of those once chosen shall be for a loathing, and the Lord shall destroy them {Isaiah 65:15}

3/ the servants of God will be called by a new name, which shall be blessed on the Earth because it is the name of true God {Isaiah 65:15–16}

4/ the Savior shall be born into the world, Who shall rule forever, and the Great Light shall shine upon the people who dwell in the zone of death {Isaiah 9:2, 6–7}

5/ the Lord shall come on the earth as the fire; with the fire of God the earth will be judged {Isaiah 66:15}

6/ the messengers of God shall be sent to all nations to proclaim the name and the glory of God to those who did not know the Lord: all the nations will be gathered for the Lord, the new brethren shall come from all the nations, and from them God shall take His priests and Levites {Isaiah 66:18–21}

7/ the fire of God shall judge and destroy those who rejected God and who became the abomination to God {Isaiah 66:15, 17–18, 24}

8/ it shall be a new heaven and a new earth, and they shall not remember the former, neither it come into their mind {Isaiah 65:17}

9/ the new world shall remain before God, as well as the seed and name of those who will come in it {Isaiah 66:22}.

As it might be inferred from the history, seven Isaiah’s visions have come true:

––– the Savior has come, and the Light shines in darkness, and the Fire – Spirit of God descended into those who are saved, healed, and sanctified by the Word–God, who observe the commandments of God, who became the temple–dwelling of the Living God, and who then, carry the kingdom of God within 

––– those from the chosen people – the Jews, who rejected Lord God Jesus Christ, have been scattered over all lands and nations; their history is the history of unspeakable suffering that reached its climax (as of today) in the death camps of Nazi Germany. All crimes against humanity, which the evil imagination is able to conceive, had been committed against the Jews by the people in whose lands and states the Jews live(d). The Jews were the victims of religious persecutions and terror unleashed by the Inquisition in Spain and other countries under the papal authority, of the “pogroms” in Russian Empire [[“pogroms” is the Russian word that denotes committed by the mob targeted plundering, rape, mockery, destruction of property and houses, and killing of the Jews]], and of the others.

After murders and plundering, the “pious Catholics” and “Russian patriots” with Jewish blood on their hands came in their churches to kneel before the Crucified Jew, the Son of man and the Son of God, and to confirm their observance of His commandment of love with murder, robbery, and other crimes committed against the people whose blood is in the veins of His human Mother.

In return, the mankind received from the Jews such “gifts” as philosophizing symbolism of Philo of Alexandria, “Christian Cabbala” introduced by the Spanish converts, Marxism, Bolshevism, “meta–psychology” and Oedipus complex of Sigmund Freud, and the others…

However, those living by the law of retribution never find the exit from the circle of violence and death; only forgiveness brings peace and prosperous living. Yet, if all human beings are offered the complete knowledge of true history of mankind, would just one man from the entire population of the Earth be found who is capable of forgiving completely?

–– the new servants of true God received a new name – they are called the Christians, because they follow True God – Lord Jesus Christ. The Christians are new creations and new servants of True God as it is the will of God from the beginning; they carry the Fire – the Holy Spirit of God and the peace of God in their soul–heart–mind; their new world is waiting them according to the promise of God {Isaiah 65:15–17; Luke 12:49; John 14:15–20, 23–28; James 1:17–18; 1 Peter 1:23; 1 John 3:2; 1 Corinthians 3:16; Ephesians 1:4–23; 2:1–22; 4:4–24; Revelation 21:1–5}. However, as of today, the original–true–Orthodox Christianity –– the unaltered teachings of Lord God Jesus Christ –– still remains the choice of a few, less than 4.4% f total population of the Earth. By the number of believers, it is in the end of the list of the world religions: after Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Folk religions, Non–religiousness, Buddhism….

–– the time, when the Gospels will be preached to all the nations is close; as of today, people of many nations became the Christians – the brethren in Lord Jesus Christ; some of them serve as the priests of the Almighty God.

The foreseen by Isaiah judgment and destruction and coming of the new heaven and the new earth – new world created by God – are close, as Lord Jesus Christ told; they are waiting us in some unknown day of the Future {Matthew 24:3–44; 2 Peter 3:1–13; Revelation}.

 

*32* Solomon’s actions mentioned in Part I include, for instance, discarding of the ordinances of God conveyed through Moses {e.g., in: Exodus 34:10–16; Deuteronomy 6:17–19; 7:1–6; 11:16; 12:1–4; 17:14–20; 30:15–20; 3 Kings 11:1–13; 2 Chronicles 1:13–17; 9:13–28}, especially, those concerning contacts with the heathens, then, marriage to heathen woman the daughter of the pharaoh of Egypt who was brought into Jerusalem, corruption by the horde of idol–worshiping wives and concubines, building of the places of worship for the idol–worshiping wives and concubines; leaving God of his fathers and inclination to idols. Solomon turned away his heart from the Lord God of Israel {3 Kings 11:1–40}

 

*33*  In: The Complete Parallel Bible. New York and Oxford, U.K.:  Oxford University Press, 1993, and The Bible: Books of the Holy Scriptures – Old and New Testament. Canonical. Published by the Holy Synod, Moscow, 1914. (Russian)

 

*34* See Introductory Note: the Concept of Wisdom and the following excerpt from Concept of Wisdom, Knowledge, and Reason/Intelligence – in: Wisdom & the Lessons of Solomon. Part I. Wisdom and the Order of Reason, Folder 2014, Page 1_January_2014.

Excerpt

“…the concept of human essence (soul–heart–mind) and its connection with God and with the world of the structured matter, which accommodates human existence, might be described with the following chart:

 

God the Father

             

Word–God        Holy Spirit

                                  Λογος, Αγια Σοφια      Ο Παρακλητος, το Πνευμα το Αγιον              

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

Human Soul–Heart–Mind

Νους

Intellect

Γνωσις ––––––––––––Σοφια

Knowledge–––––––––Wisdom

Διανοια

The reason/intelligence

Γνωμα –– Φρονημα–– Λογισμος

Consciousness–Thinking–Reasoning/Faculty of Deliberation

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

↓             ↑

Αισθητηρια  Οργανα

Sensory Facility – sensory perception/parameters of the matter

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

↓             ↑

The world composed by derivatives of the Divine Creative Energy of God:

the set of the energy fields,

which makes possible existence of the temporary structured matter–carrier of life

 

 

Accordingly, the entire realm of knowledge that accommodates life of human intellect–intelligence–reasoning consists of three interconnected domains:

 

Knowledge from the above – the knowledge of God

and His laws

(Theology; the levels of Νους and Διανοια)

Knowledge created by the mind;

for instance, knowledge of the world and human place in it

(the level of Διανοια; e.g., Philosophy, Logic)

↓     ↑

Knowledge inferred from the parameters of the world of the structured matter,

which makes possible physical survival

(the levels of  Γνωμα –– Φρονημα–– Λογισμος

and Αισθητηρια  Οργανα;

e.g., natural and other sciences)

 

The mind, which rejects God, loses the access to the spiritual knowledge and become unable to obtain wisdom; such a mind operates at the levels of Διανοια, Γνωμα ––Φρονημα––Λογισμος, and Αισθητηρια Οργανα, which maintain physical survival. Then, gradually, existence of the mind, which has lost access to the spiritual knowledge and wisdom, becomes limited with the functions, which maintain only physical survival, or life of flesh – sensory faculty and the lower levels of the reasoning, including imagination. For such a mind, materialism becomes the actuality and the way of life*14*.

However, if the mind rejects life of spirit and accepts materialism as the reality, it cuts itself from the life at the level of Νους: it deprives itself of the access to the life–creating divine energy that comes through the Word–God. Then, it feeds itself with self–produced knowledge assembled from the images created with the information received through the sensory faculty…

 

*14* See posting Materialism, Folder World & War, Page 2, of Folder Archive_2013, Page 10_December_2013….”

 

End of excerpt

 

*35* See The Creation of Man – Folder Archive_2013, Page 8_September_October_2013, The Works of God: Faith, Mercy, Creation – Page 6_July_2013, and The Creation and the Renewal  – Page 3_April_2013, and The Absolute Good – Page 9_November_2013

 

*36* See posting The Statecraft, Folder Archive_2011, Page _2011

 

*37* See the following excerpts for posting The Portion, in Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page

 

Excerpt:

 

“The Portion

…there is no new thing under the sun…

...the living know that they shall die…

...the dead know nothing…

…there is no portion for them anymore forever in all that is under the sun…

{Ecclesiastes 1:9; 9:5–6}

 

Solomon the king in Jerusalem, the wisest of all the rulers, has a definite vision of the world: two directions of thought are intertwined in his book {Ecclesiastes}. 

The first: a generation appears, and generation goes away, yet the Earth stands. The wind goes round and round, and returns on its circles. The rivers find their rest within the sea, yet, they flow again and again, and the see is not overfilled, because the rivers return to their beginning. The sun arises and goes down, to the sunset, and then, next dawn marks the new day. There is nothing new under the sun: whatever was, it is, and it shall be; each thing comes in its own time; moreover, no memory of the Past enters the Future.

Solomon acknowledges that he accomplished everything that the king and wise man could: all that people could desire and learn was given to him and opened to his understanding, yet, all his deeds and observations led him to the following sad inferences:

– all labors of man are only for body; his soul is not satisfied

– all labors of man are futile; no one has the authority over the fruits of own labor, accumulated wealth (everything might be taken away and transferred to the others), and own spirit; man cannot prevent own death or to prolong own life

– the fate of man is the same as the fate of beast: all came from the dust and all will return into the dust

– there is no memory of the Past in the Future, and the living do not know their end – an evil time falls upon them suddenly and they are snared as the fishes taken by the evil net 

– there is no knowledge of love as well as there is no knowledge of hatred, and the same fate (death of body) awaits those who are good and those who are evil

– the hearts of men are filled with evil, and madness in their life is the pursuit of death

– with the departure–death of man, his love and envy perish; there is no more portion and there is no more place for him under the sun

– everything is vanity of vanities; all is vanity...

In summary, all things at the Earth come into existence, fulfill the circle–cycle of life, reach the end, and then, revert to the beginning; everything has its own time–frame (χρονος), the moment of fulfillment (καιρος), when it comes to the completion, and then, vanishes. The next set starts again within the same presumably unchangeable world leaving nothing definite or new to those who will follow: man has no knowledge of good and evil, and he is not different from other living creatures, because in the allotted time, death takes all the living and the very memory of them vanishes.

So, the first line of thoughts leads to a conclusion that the world of men is quite tedious and meaningless place: there is nothing new under the sun, and the Earth is nothing more than the constant setting (the wooden frame for the mind to weave its masterpiece of life – see The Web of Life, posting for August 10, 2008, in Archive_2008–2009, Page_1)  within which the same cycles are repeated again and again and again without memory of the Past and without initial access to true knowledge of the good and the evil –

 

creation –– origin

existence –– accomplishment or consummation

death –– disintegration.

 

Why, then, everyone comes to expect something new, to accomplish that what has not been seen before, to discover the new meaning of things, to pursue the purposes, which were not accessible for those who lived before? If the same set of emotions, feelings, joys, sufferings, pleasures, findings, and losses awaits every human being, is any reason to seek the meaning of everything if all had happened before: all was cognized or was not possible to cognize, all was found, and all was lost?

The general idea of nothingness and meaningless of powerless men who have no knowledge of good and evil and who vanish without trace is opposed to and defied by the second line of thoughts reflecting man’s connection with the Almighty God and intervention of God into the life of man.

All deeds of God are timeless: they shall be forever. All deeds of men vanish. The world is set within the heart of man, so he would do his part of labor within the allotted time, yet, man is unable to comprehend the deeds of God as well as to deduce the complete meaning of own deeds. Only God gives the joy of knowledge and opens mind for understanding and wisdom: all good things come to man by the will of God not by man’s own labor. Although God created man to be righteous, the imagination is inclined to evil {Genesis 8:21}, and intentions of man are many, yet, God will investigate and judge all. Consequently, the sum of all is to fear God and to observe His commandments: in this is the essence or entirety of man {Ecclesiastes}…”

 

End of Excerpt

 

*38* See posting Materialism – Folder World & War

 

*39* See postings Destiny of Man – Folder Archive_2010, Page _2010 and Part 5. The Temple in:  Introduction to Christianity, Folder Foundation

 

*40* The following assertions of the popes and the papal establishment confirm self–deification of Innocent III (1198–1216) and his successors.

1/ The pope is positioned between God and man: “less than God but greater than man, judging all men and judged by none” [Innocent III qtd. in: La Due 119].

The assertion elaborates the Philo’s misinterpretation of the Old Testament, when he describes his vision of the wise man who ceased to be man and became “something on the border” between God and man – “neither God nor man,” and then, makes the high priest not man but something of “the middle class” connected with “the immortal race by his virtue” [Philo of Alexandria On Dreams II, XXXIV.228–232; XXXV.234 404, 405]. The Innocent III’s self–appointment at the place of the supreme judge of humankind reveals that the place of the Plato’s divine philosopher or the Philo’s high priest is not enough: the pope’s ultimate target is the place of Almighty God–Father Who Himself is the Judge of the Earth and of the nations. Indeed, if Lord God Jesus Christ, Whose Vicars on the Earth the popes claim to be, did not come to the Earth to judge the world and ruin the souls of men but to save them {in: Luke 9:54–56; John 12:47} why the pope should imitate His mercy and why the pope cannot act as the destroyer if he himself is a deity?

2/ The power of coercion belongs to the pope according to the words of God to Jeremiah the prophet with the priestly ancestry {the source in: Jeremiah 1:10} who conveys the words of God concerning the One Who is set over nations and kingdoms to pluck up, to destroy, and to overthrow. The pope applied these words of God to himself, transferring therefore, to “the single person of Christ’s Vicar” the right and responsibility to unify kingdom and priesthood [Selected Letters of Pope Innocent III… 65–66, 178].

However, if God sent His servant with the special mission, it does not mean that each pope would have the same mission. Contrary to the Aquinas’ fantasy, there is no such thing as “the grace of the papal office,” and the title does not make prophets and saints; just recall the popes deposed by the Council of Constance (1414–1418) for “detestable and dishonest life and morals” (John XXIII) and for perjury, heresy, and fostering schism (Benedict XIII) [Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils 417, 437]. From another point of view, the mentioned above deposed popes could assume the task to destroy and to overthrow the very idea of “divine” papal authority, yet, such interpretation of the papal stewardship does not seem to be consistent with the Innocent III’s assertions.

3/ God appointed the pope to be “His Vicar on earth”; therefore, “as every knee is bowed to Jesus, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth,” in the same fashion all men must obey His Vicar – the pope.

Indeed, the pope Innocent III, the initiator of the Fourth Crusade during which the Catholic Crusaders pillaged and destroyed the Greek Orthodox temples in Constantinople (1204), was the first pope to use and widely apply to himself the title of “vicar of Christ,” especially, when he was concerned with the expansion of the Papal States and establishment of the papacy in the Byzantium, at the ruins of destroyed Christian temples. After fall of Constantinople, pope Innocent III raised the papacy’s authority and influence in the West Europe to the highest point. Later, Innocent III at the pick of his political, judicial, financial, and secular power was compared with Napoleon Bonaparte [Harry E. Barnes 364] that one more time reveals the incompatibility of the papal empire with the Christian Church.  

4/ The pope acts on behalf of the Holy Trinity, “by the authority of SS Peter and Paul, and by... own authority” [Innocent III ref. and qtd. in: Encyclopedia of the Vatican and Papacy 213–214; La Due 118, 124; Willett 11]. In accordance with such self–assessment, in July 1213, Innocent III sent to the kingdom of England his legate –“a very angel of peace and salvation,” to whom the pope, imitating God, transferred his own – the Innocent III’s – authority to “root out... build and plan... conformably with God’s will” [Selected Letters of Pope Innocent III… 177, 216, 150, 151, 154].

This assertion reveals that, in his mind, in addition to self–assumed prophetic status, pope Innocent III considered himself as the deity who even has own “angel of peace and salvation” that, obviously, is “of things in heaven.” Unfortunately, Innocent III did not leave the names of those who served him from “under the earth,” especially when he initiated the Crusade and contemplated that what became the Inquisition. He also left unspecified the source of his “own authority.” Man, indeed, should have some non–human properties to mention his own authority next to the reference to the Holy Trinity and to send his own “angel” capable of realizing the will of God.

The Innocent III’s self–deification had opened the gate for the flow of similar assertions, which ultimately formed the meaning of deification of the Roman pope for the Innocent III’s successors.

With the references to the mission of Jeremiah the Prophet (mentioned by Innocent III in the context of papal authority) and to the St. Paul’s “spiritual man” who judges all things, yet, whom nobody can judge {this assertion is based on misinterpretation of 1 Corinthians 2:15}, the pope Boniface VIII made the statements that the papal authority is divine, and for the sake of eternal salvation it is necessary “for every human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff.”Then, the pope Pius XII continued: there is the dangerous error to believe that it is possible to accept Christ and to “reject genuine loyalty to His Vicar on Earth” [The Bull Unam Sanctam, 1302, in: Documents of the Christian Church 127; Pius XII qt. from Mystici Corporis Christi in: Sherrard (1978a) 60].

It means that the eternal salvation of men had been separated from the acceptance of Lord Jesus Christ as the Savior and God, from fulfillment of the God’s commandments, and from the mercy of God. The popes asserted themselves as the unavoidable supplements to God, and the papal subjects received a new deity, perhaps even more authoritative than God Himself, because faith and loyalty to God were sufficient no more: the absolute submission and “genuine loyalty” to the “divine authority” of the pope became the conditions of eternal life. With such dethronement of God, deification of the pope – as well as apostasy – was logically completed.

5/ In the fifteenth century, the Council of Basel–Ferrara–Florence–Rome (1431–1445) declares the pope’s primacy “over the whole world.” It pronounces him to be the head of the whole church, “a common father” for “people from all parts,” and “the father and teacher of all Christians” with the full St. Peter the Apostle’s authority over the whole Church [Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils 528].

6/ In the sixteenth century, elaborating the Innocent III’s assertion, the pope Pius V presents himself as the appointed by God “chief over all nations and all kingdoms” who sits at the “supreme throne of justice” with the fullness of power “to pluck up, destroy, scatter, dispose, plant and built” [Bull Against Elizabeth, 1570 in: Documents of the Christian Church 267–268].

7/ In the nineteenth century, after complete loss of the apparent secular power over the states, which constituted the papal empire, the First Vatican Council (1869–1870), nevertheless, re–asserted “the divine right of the apostolic primacy” and “the full and supreme power of jurisdiction” of the whole church worldwide; the Council declared anathema to those who do not recognize that [e.g., in: Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils 812–815]

a/ the Roman pope is the “true vicar of Christ,” “the father and teacher of all Christians,” who by “the divine right of the apostolic primacy” is also the “supreme judge” with the “full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole church” and holds “a worldwide primacy”

b/ the Church of Rome has “preeminence” of power over “every other church.”

8/ In the twentieth century, the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) defines the pope’s title as the infallible “supreme shepherd and teacher of all Christ’s faithful,” whose promulgations need neither approval nor judgment of the others. The Council also clarified the doctrine of infallibility of the pope: the pope is infallible, his judgments are “irreformable of themselves... for they are delivered with the assistance of the Holy Spirit,” when he judges not as a private person but as “the supreme teacher of the universal church” [Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils 869].

The preserved by the history papal self–portrayals and interpretations of the papal authority by the papal establishment leave no place for any illusions concerning the essence of the worldwide domination and the real meaning of the title “the father and teacher of all Christians” or “a common father” for “people from all parts.” Consequently, the concept of papal comprehensive “absolute power,” including the “power” to override the law of God and assertion of existence of the special “grace” of the papal office (which, during centuries, effectively shielded papal hierarchy for any responsibility for corruption, vice, and the committed crimes against humanity and against their own subjects), was made the article of faith for the papal subjects, completing therefore substitution of the mortal man for God and revealing the comprehensive fulfillment of the pattern of institutionalized apostasy.

 

*41* See The Vineyard, and The lessons of the Vineyard – Folder Archive_2012, Page 5_May_June_2012

 

 

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As of today, the link to the UN Report is still available through U.N. Slams Vatican Over Child Abuse Cover-Up @ World Time website @  http: // world.time.com /2014/02/05/u-n-slams-vatican-over-child-abuse-cover-up/

 

Magdalene laundries: Ireland accepts state guilt in scandal – http: // www. guardian.co.uk/ world/2013/feb/05/magdalene-laundries-ireland-state-guilt

Scathing UN report demands Vatican act against child sex abuse – http: // www. euronews.com/ 2014/02/05/scathing-un-report-demands-vatican-act-against-child-sex-abuse/

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