Sunday's Thoughts
by Alice-Alexandra-Sofia
 

Materialism

 

Preliminary Note

Introduction

Definition

Conclusion

 

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Materialism

 

…And God formed the man from the dust of the earth,

and breathed upon his face the breath of life,

and the man became a living soul…

{Genesis 2:7}

…thou art cursed…

…and thou shalt eat earth all the days of thy life…

{Genesis 3:15}

 

 

 

Preliminary Note

 

Almost nothing material is left from the ancestors – previous generations and from their establishments such as mighty empires, states, civilizations, besides tiny pieces of the structured matter – the material things: 

– ruins of the cities, palaces, temples

– excavated from the tombs and graveyards jewelry, potter, statues of idols carved from stone and dead wood, remnants of bones of the humans and animals sacrificed to the idols

– pyramids with embalmed remnants of dead bodies and things, which in the Past conveyed the message of mighty and glory believed to be rightful possession of those who deified themselves and set their thrones above all, yet who in their time vanished from the world of the living and turned into lifeless dust as all the simple and poor mortal ones do.

Although these pieces of the matter are still structured, the message of human glory and might, which their makers wanted to carry forever, does not work. Now they are the somber remainder of vanity and self–deceit of those who trusted in the material things and assumed that they are carriers of the absolute power through which rulers and leaders of all kinds envisioned themselves as the part of the eternity. 

The human history illustrates the systematic failure of men to establish own power, glory, and might through possession with the material things. Although they all are perceivable objects with which the some can kill, incarcerate, enslave, and otherwise influence the many, their true value is just figments of human imagination, because the power of a human being is not in the weapons, riches, armies, access to the coercive power, abilities to deceive and capacity to destroy the others along with the material things in their possession.

The Christian teachings offers the chance of the eternal life of the human spirit who is in God Who is the Spirit {John 4:23–24} to those who are able to look further, beyond the perceivable material things. The true power of man is in his faith and love to God and to God’s creations, and there is only one invincible empire in the earth: the human spirit devoted to God and living by God, under the protection of God, and in love of God.

From such a point of view, materialism is the first of the worst weapons, which the human mind invented for self–destruction, and true knowledge of God is the ultimate indestructible power that opens the eternity for those who have to pass through the world of the material things, from which is the only exit – physical death, disintegration of the matter.

 

 

Introduction

 

The Holy Scriptures is the book of life and for the living ones; it leads to God and sustains continuing education of all minds that have to pass through the earth: to find God and to accomplish the path into the eternity with God; it is universal, because it carries knowledge given by God – the knowledge of the Word–God, Λογος, Αγια Σοφια the universal Law, the main pattern of creation, the universal code that creates and sustains life and that might be comprehended, read, initiated within all settings, at all levels of complexity*1*, which define the range–varieties–scale of life within the universe accessible for human mind. The one can obtain the universal and the optimal knowledge: although the circumstances of life (the parameters of the time–space–complexity settings, initial degree of cognition of the good and the evil, race, sex, nationality, initial beliefs, social status, education, legacy of parents, technical development, and so on), which accommodate a particular mind, might be different or even utterly incompatible, the Holy Book provides for everyone’s need, according to everyone’s preparedness and everyone’s degree of understanding.

The Holy Scriptures speak in the terms of the infinite and universal knowledge of God; there is no place for limited human “wisdom”*2* in the mind of those who

 

are focused*3* on learning knowledge of God and accomplishment of the words of God

obtained faith*4* that is the optimal state of the human reason

live by faith in Lord Jesus Christ and by love to God and to the others

are just in truth.

 

As St. Paul the Apostle explains, those who come to Christianity might be enabled to obtain the treasure of the life in the spirit and the perfect reasoning; they should not live by the elements of the world and by deceit of philosophy*5*: with God, wisdom of this world is foolishness (μωρια – madness, foolishness, void of reason); they also do not adulterate the words of God {Romans 1:16–17; Ephesians 1:17–23; Colossians 2:2–23; Galatians 4:1–10; 5:1, 13–26; 6:7–10; 1 Corinthians 3:16–23; 2 Corinthians 4:2–6}.

For the Christians, the Word–God is the Absolute Good*6*, and the Everything of man – Truth, Light, Life, Love and knowledge of God, Way to God {John 1:1–4; 3:19; 6:27–69; 9:5; 11:25–26; 14:6; 15; 15; 17}. Consequently, for them, the words of God are the unassailable purity and perfection: they must be strictly guarded from contamination with figments of human corrupted imagination intently bent upon the evil {in: Genesis 8:21}.

Thus, the treasure of the universal knowledge that defines and preserves life in its entirety and complexity {e.g., in: Wisdom 7:15–30; 8:1–16; 9:1–18; 12:1; 15:3; John 1:1–3; 17} must not be tainted with the additions and misinterpretations of men, which are heresy*7*: it must be taken as is, with thanksgiving for the mercy of God Who calls a human being to Himself and then, leads him home, into His house {cf.: John 6:44–45; 14:1–3; 17}. Only if the Christian teachings – knowledge given by Lord Jesus Christ, the Word–God, becomes the core–essence–substance of human heart–mind, then, the human being is transformed into a new and completed creation in Christ: creation of God in Christ for good {κτισθευτες ευ ΧριστωEphesians 2:10}, the perfect evolving being born by the Word of Truth, created after the likeness of the Word–God, and prepared for the next phase of existence within the perfect world of God {Isaiah 65:17–25; James 1:17–18; 1 Peter 1:23–25; 1 John 3:1–2; Ephesians 2:10; Revelation 21:1–7; 22:1–5}.

In the same time, the universal knowledge of the Λογος, Αγια Σοφια – the Word–God through Whom all things came into being, which is conveyed by the Holy Scriptures, provides an opportunity for everyone, at his own level of development, within his own Κοσμος  – the structured order of the world which he considers as his own,  

 

to learn his very own lessons according to the ability of thinking given by God

and life experience

to develop own understanding of the good and the evil

to comprehend the irrelevance of the evil

to identify own purposes and actions through which the one could build his own temple of God

to accomplish the commandments of God

to embody the words of God into own world–actuality of existence, and to create the works of God

{as it is in: John 6:29; 8:51; 14:12}*8*

to evolve into a new creation of God – the likeness of the Word–God

(that is to reach the level of completeness–perfection–universality

according to the purposes of God)

to enter the eternity with God.

 

For instance, which lesson the description of the beginning, the original sin and its consequences {Genesis} offers to the mind that desires to be focused*3* on God, to live by God, and to create the good according to the learned knowledge of God and gifts of the Holy Spirit, to have freedom of knowledge and freedom to imitate the perfection of God even within the world of the evil?

Perhaps, one of the main points is comprehension of the settings – the actuality of our existence, the world of the material things, in which a mortal human being has to find his road to God and to evolve into the new immortal being capable of enduring the presence of God through the eternity.

 

 

The Beginning

 

God made to spring out of the earth all trees of the Paradise; among them, the tree of cognition of knowledge of the good and the evil was. God warned Adam do not eat from the tree of cognition of the good and the evil, because in the day when he eats of it, he shall surely die {Genesis 2:8–9, 15–17}.

The serpent contradicted the warning of God: he told the woman that they (the man and the woman) shall not surely die. For God knows that but their eyes will be opened and they would be as gods knowing the good and the evil {Genesis 3:1–6}.

The woman saw that the tree was good for food and pleasant to the eyes to look upon, and ωραιον εστι του κατανοησαι – beautiful to observe, perceive and contemplate*9*, so she took of its fruits and ate and gave her husband, and they ate {Genesis 3:7}. 

Then, διηνοιχθησαν οι οφθαλμοι των δυο, και εγνωσαν οτι γυμνοι ησαν {Genesis 3:8} - their eyes/sight/vision were expanded for the new stream of reasoning–cognition, and they perceived themselves as γυμνοι  – exposed, “naked”*10*. They covered their “nakedness” as much as they could, and when they heard the voice of God walking in the garden, they hid themselves in the midst of the trees of the garden from the face of the Lord God. Answering the question of God, Adam told that he feared because he was “naked” and he hid himself. Adam told that the woman whom God gave to be with him – she gave him the fruit and he ate; woman said that the serpent deceived her and she ate {Genesis 3:8–14}. So, they both attempted to blame another one for own disobedience to God.

When the Septuagint {Genesis 3} refers to the eyes of the man and the woman, it defines two levels of perception:

1/ before eating the forbidden fruit, the woman saw the tree of cognition of knowledge of the good and the evil and determined that it was pleasant to look and desirable to consume, and beautiful to perceive

2/ after their “eyes were opened,” they were enabled to comprehend own “nakedness” that is to evaluate themselves negatively.

Therefore, from the perception of the outer beauty, they came to the vision of own incompleteness or insufficiency: “nakedness,” which they attempted to cover {Genesis 3:8}. However, such a transformation was not a consequence of their original imperfection: they were created in the image and after likeness of the Almighty Omnipotent and Perfect God to dominate and to toil the perfect world created by God; thus, initially, they were perfect as any creation of God is perfect {Genesis 1; 2; Wisdom 13:5}. Their judgment (that they are exposed and therefore, not perfect, and thus have a reason to fear God and to avoid Him) was the first indication of cognition of the evil*11*, which, at their original level, should not exist for them.

However, nothing incomplete, imperfect, insufficient, or evil is enabled to endure the presence of God. Since, each sinner carries within his own judge and accepts the sentence: to separate*12* and to hide himself from God, Who is the Light, and run into darkness of the evil {in: John 3:19–20; 9:4–5; 14:6}.

In summary, the one can infer that the altered/changed perception with the openness for cognition of the evil was among the first fruits of cognition of the good and the evil. Could it be then, the slide to another level of complexity? For instance,

from

the level where the perfection, beauty, and other components of the Absolute Good of the Creator

and the created by Him world

are the permanent–eternal actuality for all inhabitants

into

the lowest level from those accessible to the mind,

where the law of irreversibility sustains the limitedness of the time and energy transformation cycles,

at which the evil is enabled to exist

(e.g., the evil as abilities of imperfection, insufficiency, collapse, disintegration and ultimately, death – termination of the life–cycle),

and at which any structured matter eventually collapses and disintegrates.

Then, if the change of the perception resulted in assumption of own insufficiency, could this insufficiency be a consequence of inabilities to control the laws defining transformation–disintegration of the material structures within the temporal singularities and consequently, the state of being not prepared to handle the conditions of survival within the newly discovered realm, which the first man should not enter?

The Adam and Eve’s assumption of own insufficiency initiated

fear of God the Creator

the inadequate evaluation of their actuality: an inability to understand

that it is not possible to hide anything from God the Creator

an attempt to flee the presence of God

{the instant self–judgment as Lord Jesus Christ explained – John 3:16–21}

an attempt to avoid responsibility by putting blame for own wrong onto another.

 

Hence, the first consequence of disobedience to God might be envisioned as setting up the roots, which make slavery of the mind–reasoning possible: fear, inadequate evaluation, an ability to be deceived, and desire to deceive, for instance, in attempt to avoid responsibility for own actions.

However,

a/ slavery*13* and evolution*14* are not compatible as the evil and the good are not compatible: the first man became unable to accomplish the purposes, for which he was settled within the evolving world*15*

b/ if there is no evolution, the short phase of stagnation begins, which initiates degeneration*16* and then, anti–evolution*17*; then, continuing cognition of the evil and consequent progressing degradation and corruption trigger disintegration of the structured matter and make it incapable of sustaining life; collapse and ultimate disintegration (death) follow.

Then, in the presence of God, any corrupted being–carrier of the evil inevitably has to face annihilation.

Consequently, there was no chance of survival for Adam, besides of taking “the fruit of the tree of life,” yet, there was no will of God for that {Genesis 3:23–25; concerning the tree of life bearing the fruits near the river of life, whose leaves are for healing of the nations, when any curse will be no longer – see Revelation 22:1–3}: Adam could not be allowed to live forever in his present then state defined by

a/ the inability of evolution

b/ imminent degeneration inseparable from knowledge of the evil

c/ inability to handle the nature of the evil and its features, for instance, such as death.

Only the One Who has the life in Himself can annihilate death {in: John 5:21–29}, yet Adam lived by the breath of life breathed by God into the face of creation formed of dust of the earth {χουν απο τυς γηςGenesis 2:7}: a human being was created to be a carrier of the Life, not the source of life.

So, the first man was sent forth out of the Garden of Delight to cultivate*18* the earth from which he was taken {Genesis 3:22–24: εργαζεσθαι την γην εξ ης εληφθη}.

Thus, God determined the next phase of existence of His creations {Genesis 3:15–25}, during which men should cultivate the earth from which they were taken and accomplish their quest for knowledge of the good and the evil:  

– the serpent has to go on its breast and belly upon the earth and to eat earth in all days of its life; it became the embodiment of the evil, and the enmity between the serpent and the woman and between the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman was established as the reality of all following generations {Luke 10:18–19}

– the vulnerable place of man, which the serpent was empowered to watch, is his πτερναν*19* – traditionally interpreted as the heel (the bottom of the foot), that is as the foundation, base – obviously, the matter from which human body is structured; yet, also it could denote wing and winged creatures; in relation to man at the earth (without material wings – wings of the body), it could be the imaginary faculty of the mind defined as “the wings of reason.” Thus, the evil in enabled to poison and to enslave man through corruption (e.g., vice, perversion) of body (matter) and deceit of the mind (false knowledge, which debilitates reasoning); consequently, as soon as the vulnerable points are the body and the mind, man should protect himself from the evil (watch over) by controlling own mind and own body

– the vulnerable place of the serpent, which man was empowered to watch over, is the serpent’s head, which carries death, because it distributes the deadly poison*20* of false and deceit that debilitates and ultimately destroys the reasoning and corrupts the body transforming a free living thinking human being into a blind slave of the evil. Thus, the human mind is empowered to decipher the threat of the evil and to avoid it {Psalm 90(91):1–16; Luke 10:17–19} by identifying truth and lies and by discerning true knowledge and false knowledge – figments of corrupted imagination

– the woman, within whose body a human spirit obtains flesh for entrance (birth) into the world of the “cursed” matter,  has to cognize the pain of childbirth and submission to the husband, who was allowed to rule over her

– the earth was “cursed” for the sin of man, so it was enabled bring forth thorns and thistles and to make man to suffer in his labors, with which he has to sustain his daily existence. Thus, the earth/matter was enabled to be imperfect, to accommodate mistakes and sins of man, and to deviate from the purposes defined as the good of man*21*

– the man has to cultivate the earth, from which he was taken, and which was “cursed” in his labors; he would in pain and sweat eat of it in all days of his life, until he returns into it, because he is earth and to earth he shall return

– the man and the woman were closed into garments of skin and exiled into the earth cursed for the man, so they  would not take the fruits of the tree of life, which was in the midst of the Garden of Delight, and would not live forever with their knowledge of the evil.

Therefore, God set a new realm – the “cursed” earth {επικαταρατος η γηGenesis 3:18} of the altered/modified matter. While the word γη defines the wide range of definitions of the matter from which the world is made and man was taken – world, earth, man, and the field of works of God and of men, other words convey the definitions of the land, soil, ground for agricultural activities, placement, and habitat of men:  εδαφος, χωμα, χωρα, χωριον. So, the meaning of γη – the earth – might be the entire world, men, and the substance from which they have been made – the matter – as well: there are no philosophical categories in the Holy Scriptures, and the word υλ (υλα, υλη) with which (and derivatives) the Dorians initially referred to forest, mud, raw materials, flesh, and which the philosophers allotted to definition of the substance and the matter as the philosophical category, is not relevant.  Consequently, the one could infer that the earth, from which man was taken and which man was send to cultivate*18*, also denotes the matter – the structured substance enabled to carry and to sustain life.

In this realm, man could actualize his pursuit of the knowledge of the evil and cognize imperfection, fear, pain, insufficiency, cursed/unfruitful and dangerous labors, false knowledge, failure to achieve purposes, enmity, slavery, and ultimately, death.

In theological terms, it is the temporal realm of the arch–enemy of man, in which it exists by consuming the matter – γην φαγη πασας τας ημερας της ζωης σου {Genesis 3:15–16; John 8:34–47; Romans 8:19–23; Revelation 20:2–14}.  Therefore, within this temporal realm, the arch–evil attempts to denigrate any living being–carrier of life into the imperfect–corrupted–degenerated–collapsing–disintegrating matter suitable for own consuming

 

firstly, by asserting itself as the absolute and as the only existing reality

consequently, making the matter*21* the only focus of human reasoning

and the very essence of human live – for the mind as well as for a body

finishing with death of the living ones as own apotheosis.

 

In summary, in such a realm, the arch–evil 

a/ is empowered to tempt man with false knowledge: lies, worship of false gods/idols, corruption, vice, sin, and death – this knowledge works as lethal poison of vipers*20* that – if accepted and absorbed/consumed – deceives, enslaves, and finally, debilitates human reasoning by depriving of true knowledge of God and by transforming human beings into the blind slaves of figments of corrupted imagination. Such blind slaves live by the fruits of the “cursed earth” (ignorance, lies and deceit, mythical thinking, false knowledge, corruption and perversion, spiritual darkness, slavery); they perceive as the only actuality the “cursed earth” with the void of reason, yet, with fullness of corrupted imagination – both resulting in perversion of the mind and body {e.g., Isaiah 6:8–10; 59:4–11; Wisdom 15:5–19; 16:1–5; 17:1–21}

b/ attempts to usurp the place of God through establishing the evil as the absolute, as the only reality of human existence: through denigrating the words of God, by asserting own lies as the only truth, by rejection of existence of God and by rejection of existence of the human spirit, by establishing the material values (power over kingdoms, glory of men, possession with material things as the meaning of wealth, riches, and prosperity) as the most desirable things, because of which man must worship the arch–evil {e.g., in: Luke 4:5–8}

c/ is given power over the derivatives of the “cursed” matter, starting with the valuables of the material world and power of coercion*23*, so it might tempt, intimidate, and corrupt the human heart and the mind, as well as corrupt, destroy, and kill a human body {Matthew 10:28; Luke 4:5–7}.

In the contemporary terms, this realm of the “cursed earth” might be defined as a temporal, therefore collapsing, singularity, in which the eternal life is not possible. The singularity accommodates temporal existence of the evil (in this context, “evil” is insufficiency, imperfection, inability to sustain continuing life, which initiate degeneration and culminate in ultimate disintegration/death) for education, tests, trials, and either evolution or anti–evolution of men. The earth is referred to as the “cursed earth,” because, although initially it was the perfect creation of God as everything created by God is perfect, it has been temporary enabled to be modified, perverted, and destroyed by men, and therefore its derivatives (including bodies of the living beings) might

be imperfect

harbor–initiate–spread imperfection, corruption, disorder, diseases, and disintegration

be in temporary slavery and submission to those who have chosen the evil as their master

be used/consumed by evil/death

accept/use/consume/eat the remnants of the dead.

 

However, this realm of suffering and death became also the stage for human evolution–perfection and ascent to God {John 3:16–17; 6:44–47; 12:24–26; 14:6, 15–17, 26; 17; Romans 8:28–39; 1 Corinthians 15:35–58; Galatians 6:1–10}; within it, a human being should obtain the steadfast unassailable unwavering – absolute – faith in God and in His words, because into this realm, God gave knowledge of life

1/ His law – The Ten Commandments, which initiated the human evolution {Exodus, Deuteronomy; Proverbs, esp. 2:1:1–11; Wisdom; Matthew 22:36–40; Luke 15} as a process of

optimization of the material and social life of men

establishment of love as the main meaning of the law

and the main value of man

search of God as the main meaning of human existence

returning to God – homecoming – as the main purpose


2/ the Word–God – Λογος, Αγια Σοφια – the universal Law, through Whom all the living came into being {Gospels; esp., John 1; 3; 14; 15; 16; 17}


Who explained God the Father

Who established perfection, mercy, and love of God as the Absolute Good that man must imitate

Who gave knowledge of God that is the eternal life to those who want to live.

 

The knowledge revealed by the Word–God – the knowledge of the Absolute Good of God – is the mightiest driving force of human evolution*14* because it is knowledge of God the Creator and the Source of Life Who creates light within darkness and opens the infiniteness of the eternity within the limitedness of death. Through observance of the commandments of God and cognition of the knowledge of the Absolute Good*6* {the knowledge of God that is the eternal life – John 17:3}, a mortal man–dweller of the “cursed earth” might be transformed into the immortal child of God: the word of God – the seed of life – within the man–earth might grow into the eternal kingdom {Matthew 13:3–33; Mark 4:26–32; Luke 8:5–15}: the fruit of life that gives immortality {Genesis 2:9, 3:23–25; Revelation 22:1–5}.  

Hence, the temporal realm controlled by the evil and death became also the place for the last phase of human evolution–process of creation of man*24*, which is initiated by the knowledge of the Word–God and God the Creator: by the teachings of Lord Jesus Christ.

In conclusion, the one might infer that

1/ if a human being learns the knowledge of the Absolute Good of God

and embodies it into own existence,

a human being enters the eternal life

≈≈≈

2/ if a human being learns the knowledge of the evil

and embodies it in into own life,

a human being becomes the servant of the evil destined for the eternal separation from God

≈≈≈

3/ an eternal human form of life*24* has to evolve for the next phase of existence – the eternity with God

by passing through the temporal singularity of the evil controlled by the evil/death,

in which disintegration of the structured matter enabled to carry the living spirit

signifies the completion of the earthly phase of the evolution

(or anti–evolution for those who are unable to evolve for the eternal life in the presence of God)

within the lawlessness of the world of the evil, it has to become

1/ the embodiment of the Universal Law of God/Λογος created according to the main pattern of creation,

the Word–God through Whom God creates,

and

2/ imitation of the perfection of God

by

a/ accomplishing the commandments of God

b/ absorbing knowledge of the Absolute Good – the knowledge of God that is the everlasting life

c/ accepting the Word–God as the actuality of own daily existence

(through embodying the commandments and words of God into own thoughts, words, and works,

and consequently,

 for instance,  through creating the evolving systems

that sustain survival and evolution of the human establishments and, through them,

the world that accommodates existence of men).

 

 

So, how the evil works?  

The matter by itself, as well as the nature, is not a possession of the evil: it operates according to the will of God Who created it by His Word – the Word–God, Λογος {Genesis 1; 2; John 1:1–3}.

The evil is enabled to exist at the lowest level of the matter accessible to human perception: it acts through the mind (thoughts) and body (words and actions), which are enabled to initiate use of the material things for the purposes of the evil; for instance, deceit, enslaving, exploitation, corruption, perversion, destruction of other beings. The evil works by poisoning the mind with false knowledge: false knowledge and lies debilitate the human mind, silence conscience, and deprive of freedom of thinking and abilities to comprehend truth – the actuality of life, the actual human nature, and the actual nature of the world. As soon as the mind begins to accept lies and false knowledge as truth, the degeneration–regress/anti–evolution*17* takes the place of the development–progress/evolution*14*, and a human being

a/ gradually loses the power to comprehend true knowledge

b/ becomes intolerable to the truth

c/ if has access to the power of coercion, begins to exterminate those who live by truth {e.g., in: John 8:31–47 – those of “Abraham’s seed” are not able to hear the words of God: they have no place for the Truth – the words of God – in their heart–mind; so, they attempt to assassinate the Man Who tells them truth}.

The next phase of modification of the matter was initiated by the blood of Abel, whom Cain slew {Genesis 4:8–16}, when human blood was shed first time and death entered the mankind’s world. The “curse” of the earth fell on Cain, who was destined to be deprived of the strength, to live groaning and trembling, and to be separated from the presence of God. Seemingly, it was the moment, when modification of the matter was extended onto the originally perfect human body making it susceptible to weakness, diseases, coercive force of the others, physical disintegration and consequent death. Cain’s descendent Lamech also was a murder {Genesis 4:17–24}, and the Cain’s curse became the inseparable attribute of the matter, which could affect any of living beings within the temporal realm of the “cursed” matter.

Apparently, all Cain’s posterity perished in the Flood {Genesis 4:25–26; 5; 6}. Noah (Noe) was the descendent of Seth delivered by Eve “instead of Abel, whom Cain slew,” and the post–Flood men are the descendents of Seth the son of Adam {as it is written in Genesis 5:1–2: God created Adam in His image; Adam begot his son Seth after his own form and his own image}.

After expulsion of Adam from the Paradise, the human race began discovery of the features of the matter given to them to cultivate; definitely, some of them succeeded: they were mighty and powerful beings. However, God said {Genesis 6:1–5} that His Spirit shall not remain among them forever because they are “flesh,” and God limited their life–time (one hundred and twenty years). As soon as Genesis mentions longevity of all descendents of Seth of the pre–Flood world (finishing with Noah), which vastly exceeds the one–hundred year limit set by God, the one can infer that reduction of the life–time was enacted for the descendents of Cain who were the “flesh” (the matter) and lived by flesh {lived by “flesh” because God did not want that His Spirit to be among them – Genesis 6:4}. Seemingly, it was the first time, when materialism as the only reality of existence was tested by men.

The ultimate result of those who were “flesh” (the first materialists who lived by flesh/matter) was overall corruption: their wickedness multiplied and every one of them in his heart was intently brooding over evil in all days. All flesh perverted its nature and its ways until such a degree that it became unable of evolution and existence in accordance with its original nature: its καιρος*26* came before God. According to God’s judgment, the perverted world was destroyed; moreover, the means of creation became the weapon of annihilation {Genesis 6:6–14; 7; 2 Peter 3:5–6}.

Although the Noah and his family were spared and were given a new world to live in, at least five events {in: Genesis 8; 9} confirm that the mind of the spared people carried the memory of the evil they observed in the pre–Flood world:

– the words of God that the imagination of man is diligent toward evil from his youth {Genesis 8:21}

– God’s warning concerning murder {Genesis 9:5–6}

– the Noah’s sacrifice (killing) of the living beings who were spared by God

– the act of Noah’s son

– the curse imposed by Noah unto the son of his son, whose descendents – the Phoenicians – are known as “the cursed people”*27*.

Nevertheless, God promised that the earth would have no further “curses” for the evil of men, and the purposes of man – the blessing given by God to the Noah and his sons – are the same as it was stated for the first man: αυξανεσθε και πληθυνεσθε και πληρωσατε  την γην, και κατακυριευσατε αυτης {Genesis 1:28; 8:20–22; 9:1, 7}: increase, and multiply, and fill the earth, and have dominion over it.

So, until the Last Day, when the world of men collapses and perishes in the vortex of fire {2 Peter 3:7, 10–12; Psalm 101(102): 25–26}, the purposes of human beings are set:

a/ to increase, and to multiply, and to fill the earth: to evolve, to become complete within the evolving world, in which allowable imperfection is fixed at some level (no more curses/modifications will fall upon the earth because of the evil of man)

b/ to have dominion over the earth: to dominate the evolving world – evolving in spite of the evil, because everything lives by the Holy Spirit of God {Psalm 103(104):27–30}, life–giving and life–sustaining knowledge of God never left the earth (e.g., revelation of God to the prophets, through whom the Holy Spirit spoke), and ultimately, man was enabled to do the works of God, so, through Lord Jesus Christ, the “curse” imposed on Cain could be undone {Isaiah 44:3; 54:13–14; John 6:44–46; 14:12–26; 2 Peter 1:19–21; 1 John 3:8–24}

c/ to maintain evolution of the evolving world.

However, human beings of the post–Flood world face more complicated purpose than the first man within the world that had neither evil nor death: to evolve–cognize the Absolute Good of the Eternal God within the temporal realm composed of the structured (therefore, limited in time and in capabilities) matter that is enabled to be imperfect and to accommodate imperfection, corruption, collapse, and ultimately, disintegration and death*28*.

Summary: as the consequence of their desire to cognize knowledge of the good and the evil, the perception of the first human beings was modified:

 

in addition to the level of complexity allotted to those who exist within the harmony of the perfect world

(not knowing the evil and death)

they were enabled to perceive the level, where the time–space–complexity parameters

define and control the temporal reality–earth–realm of the matter,

within which the evil

(as insufficiency or deficiency of the structured matter and imperfection determined by insufficiency of the material structures)

might be enabled to exist until the purposes of its existence are achieved.

 

This modification enabled a possibility to explore the ultimate depth of the evil: not only physical death as separation of the spirit–soul from body–flesh, yet also separation of the spirit–soul and the mind/reasoning, so the heart–mind can be cut off from the perception of life of the spirit.

Since, within the “cursed earth” – the temporal limited realm of the structured–collapsing–disintegrating matter controlled by the law of irreversibility*29*, human beings must accomplish their evolution as ascent to the highest level of complexity/perfection defined by knowledge of the Absolute Good, which would enable them to enter the next phase of existence, within the unlimited eternal reality.

The exit from the temporal realm is possible only through physical death – disintegration of the temporal structures of the matter (body) enabled to carry life within the “cursed earth” – the realm set by God for existence of a particular kind of His creations during their quest for

a/ knowledge*30* of the good and of the evil

b/ the power to commit either the good or the evil

c/ either evolution*14*  or anti–evolution*17*.

Within the temporal realm of the structured–collapsing–disintegrating matter, the human form of life is the unity of

 

spirit/energy/soul mind/energy/reason body/matter/flesh

This unity is actualized at three levels:

 

the level of the spirit/soul

the level of human reasoning–perception of God the Creator and His creations – the heart–mind

↓               ↑

the level of the structured matter enabled to accommodate life of the soul–heart–mind.

 

Consequently, life of a human reasoning is actualized within three domains of knowledge: knowledge of God the Spirit Who makes a human being the living soul, knowledge of the human nature, and knowledge of the world of the structured matter.   

A normal human mind is focused*3* on the primary domain – knowledge of God the Spirit (the Source of life and invisible energy that creates and maintains the matter).

A mind with the impaired perception {in: Isaiah 6:9–8; 43:8; 59:10; Jeremiah 5:21–26; Matthew 13:14–15; Mark 4:11–12; Luke 8:10; John 12:37–41; Acts 28:23–27; 2 Corinthians 4:3–4}, which, usually, is the consequence of cognition of the evil, deceit, own corruption, legacy of the parents, influence of the society and human establishments (e.g., oppressing atheistic political regimes, totalitarian states, ethics–free sciences, corruption and perversion elevated at the rank of norm), is focused on the secondary domain – knowledge of the visible perceivable world of the structured matter.

Accordingly, two kinds of life are possible for a human mind within the material world: life by the spirit and life of the matter.

Since, the prophets envisioned the home–coming of men (who have been deprived of knowledge of God and who perceive the apparent tangible physical world as the only reality) as the journey of the blind ones whom God leads by the unknown ways transforming for them the darkness into the light. God creates a new people for Himself: an ignorant vile human predator–beast evolves into the immortal human being on whom the Glory of God shines; the one who was born blind is empowered to see; the slaves of the sin and darkness are set free; the hungry ones are given the Bread of Life; the thirsty ones receive the Spring of the eternal life; those laboring and being burdened cognize rest and peace; those who serve God receive the power to tramp over the evil and the evil ones {Matthew 11:27–30; Luke 10:19; John 6:32–58; 8:34–36; 9:1–7; Psalm 72(73):22–26; 90(91):13; 106(107); Isaiah 42:16–18; 43:1–3, 19–21; 60:19–22; Revelation 21:1–7, 10–11, 22–23}.

Therefore, God in His mercy facilitates homecoming of His people – those who accept His guidance and live by His Word, by His Spirit, and in His Love.

Thus, as soon as God is the Spirit {John 4:24} and His people must worship Him in Spirit and Truth, only those who live by the spirit are capable of evolution (in this context, evolution is preparation for the eternity in the presence of God), and this evolution is accomplished according to the knowledge given by the Word–God and through the gift of the Holy Spirit.

The human evolution is driven by the knowledge of the Truth – the knowledge of True and One God Who is the Perfect Almighty All–forgiving Love. Consequently, the human evolution might be envisioned as

a/ the process of absorbing the knowledge that carries the eternal life – knowledge of the Word–God and God the Father, the Creator {John 17}; this knowledge is firstly, the knowledge of the Absolute Good*6*, which is the attribute of God explained by Lord Jesus Christ – the Word–God Who was sent to save the world {John 1:1–18; 3:16–21; 14; 17}

b/ embodying the knowledge of the Absolute Good into own life and life of the world given into own dominion (e.g., family, children, society, other establishments, whatever the sphere of influence is).

From the other side, the process of anti–evolution is driven by false knowledge – the knowledge of the evil. Consequently, the human anti–evolution is a process of degeneration and corruption

actualized through learning/absorbing the knowledge of the evil,

which is embodied into own life and the life of those who compose the sphere of influence

completed with the ultimate total ruin

{διαφθορονin: Psalm 106(107):20}

that is with degeneration, collapse and destruction – physical, moral, and religious

 

False knowledge like the ancient leprosy (the deadly disease mentioned in the Holy Scriptures) pollutes and debilitates a human mind and makes possible its deprivation*31* of the life–giving knowledge of God.

By the very nature, a human being is not able to exist without God. The tragedy of man is that in those who do not come to knowledge of True God, the evil takes the place of God: the evil accomplishes usurpation of the place of God through propagation of false knowledge.

There are three groups of false knowledge – figments of corrupted human imagination intently bent upon the evil, which might ruin the mind:

1/ false religions invented by those who are not able to perceive True God; the authors are philosophizing diviners– producers of heresies*7* and of the heathenism. The knowledge of the idols works as the debilitating poison*32*: the “spoiled vineyard”*33* is an example of the destructive power of the heathenism, especially, the Orphic doctrine*20*, which have been absorbed from idol–worshipping nations {e.g., in: Isaiah 2:6–9; 40:10–31; 44:9–20; 45:18–26}

2/ atheism*34* , which manifests itself mainly as denial of existence of God accompanied with the beliefs in some abstract/common good for the sake of which any evil done to the others is justified, illustrates adaptability and mutual interchangeability of false religions. For instance, initially, atheism was the main religion of Bolsheviks and Communists who, following Bruno Bauer, referred to other religions as to “opium (or opiate) of the masses”; then, ordinary idol–worship (cult of the state, and cults of personalities – leaders of party and state) took the place of atheism, which nevertheless was still officially held as the state–sponsored main belief

3/ assertions of those who deny existence of God the Spirit {John 4:23–24} and consequently, deny spiritual life of man: materialism*22*, which either considers the matter as the only reality of human existence or openly elevates the matter at the rank of deity.

In the current phase of development of human civilizations, materialism became the most dangerous embodiment of the evil struggling to usurp the place of the Absolute Good*6* and the first enemy of the human mind that seeks the road to God*35* and attempts to obtain faith and wisdom.

 

 

Definition

 

The one might become acquainted with philosophical doctrine of materialism*22* and the practical results of its implementation (the fruits, which it did bring forth for mankind) through

– numerous works of heathen philosophers beginning with the Antiquity and finishing with the contemporary followers of Aristotle, Marx, and others of a kind

– theological doctrines based on doctrines of Aristotle, through which the multitude of heresies and the remnants of the heathen religions took the place of the Christian teachings in religious establishments that – following Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Aquinas, and their pupils – accepted heathen philosophy as the means to interpret the Holy Scriptures

– works of researchers, scientists, politicians

– history of current civilizations, which provide complete illustrations of the consequences of materialism:

a/ starting with the Inquisition that has its ideological foundation in Augustine’s Compelle Intrare, with which the former Manichaean attempted to justify his assertion that application of the coercive power over a human body might influence inner conviction of the heart–mind; the base for such assertions was a case of forceful conversion of the Donatists into the Catholics*36*

b/ continuing through religious wars and persecutions of the different–minded during the entire history of mankind, and especially, in the time that passed since God granted the Christian teachings

c/ following with the history of the twentieth – twenty–first century: repression of religious freedom and freedom of conscience, mass executions and other atrocities of the totalitarian states founded on bolshevism*37* and communism (which are the derivatives of the Marxist materialistic dialectics that is the derivative of the Aristotelian doctrines developed on the Plato’ social–political utopia, which stems from the Orphism*20*) and their contemporary versions in North Korea, China, and other countries under the Marxist spell

d/ following with terrorism, which is used by those who pursue the purpose of world–wide domination – by those who through atrocities and crimes against humanity, murder of the innocent people, and propaganda that transforms human beings into the human weapon, attempt to deceive, to subdue, and to enslave the people of other religions and walks of life, to transform them into the pieces of spiritless flesh confined within the prison of false knowledge and controlled by fear and ruthlessness.

All of them have the same foundation – the attempts

to deny existence of God the Spirit

revealed and explained by His Son – Lord Jesus Christ, the Word–God

to deny existence of spiritual life of man in the Word–God and in the Holy Spirit, and therefore

to elevate the matter at the rank of the absolute, and to present the world of the structured matter as the only reality.

 

The difference among them also is the same – different degrees of degeneration or the different stages of the same path to the ultimate total ruin {διαφθορον – in: Psalm 106(107):20}.

From the logical point of view, only degeneration and collapse followed with the complete ruin compose a true reality of materialism, and it cannot be otherwise. In particular, any material thing is temporal and conditional: it exists during limited time–range, and its existence is possible only under the specific terms (or specific conditions of the matter, e.g., pressure, temperature, intensity of energy fields, etc.). Consequently, the mind that has rejected existence of the human spirit, considers reason/intelligence as the function of the matter, and accepted the material world as the only absolute reality inevitably has to follow the overall order of this reality: as all material things, it has to come through the mandatory inevitable stages of degeneration (e.g., loss of power of reasoning, disease), collapse, disintegration, and to cease to exist.  It is self–evident also that a degenerating collapsing mind is capable not of creation. Such a mind works with the logic of death (Aristotelian logic of simplification), and it brings forth only the fruits of death: false knowledge inadequate to the actuality, materialistic and ethics–free sciences – manufacturers of death, WMD, wars, crimes, unrest, lawlessness and disorder. As St. Paul the Apostles notices, the one who is sowing to the flesh will harvest corruption of the flesh; the one who is sowing to the Spirit, will harvest the fruit of the Spirit – life everlasting {Galatians 6:8}. In summary, materialism has no chance to discover the life everlasting, and the destiny of materialism–oriented mind is διαφθορον – the total ruin.

However, the main danger is not materialism in its open and irrational version: the openness of irrational constructions makes them less dangerous for many minds endowed with the faculty of logical reasoning. The main danger is the materialism either elevated into the rank of deity or covered with the remnants of the beliefs into existence of spiritual life – some kind of the “middle way” between yes and now, which exists only in imagination of those who are afraid of death, yet, because of some reasons are not able to find the way to life. 

In general, two views on the matter compose the realm of the beliefs, convictions, opinions concerning the world of the structured matter, in which man has to accomplish his quest for cognition of the good and the evil:

1/ normal perception that places the matter (including human flesh) under the control of the human spirit and recognizes matter–body/flesh as one of the natural components of a human form of life, which is the wholeness composed of spirit/soul–mind/reason–body/flesh/matter

2/ materialism as a set of doctrines, religions, cults, ideologies, etc. that are originated by

– two extremes – the opposite points of view: the matter as the complete evil, which must be exterminated, and the deified matter, which must be worshiped

– the multitude of derivatives with different degrees of closeness to one of the extremes.

 

The normal perception of the matter

 

The normal perception of the matter is founded on the knowledge conveyed by the Holy Scriptures; it is adequate to the nature of the world of the material things. The matter is a creation of God; as such, it is perfect and serves the purposes of God according to His will; a human being’s body and the world given into the dominion of men are formed of the matter. However, since the beginning of the quest for knowledge of the good and the evil, all human beings have to pass through the world of the matter, which was altered {“cursed” – Genesis 3; 4}. The “curses” mentioned in Genesis (and consequent Books of the Holy Scriptures, finishing with Revelation} are the features of the temporal collapsing singularity, which is capable of accommodating imperfection, failure to achieve purposes, sin, corruption, collapse, and disintegration, so a human being could accomplish the quest for the knowledge of the good and the evil and learn how to cultivate*18* the earth rightly. The multileveled perception, the curse of imperfection, and consequent corruption and collapse make possible the contradiction between the human spirit and human body {of which, for instance, St. Paul the Apostle writes in Galatians, esp. 5:16–26}.

The Word–God annihilated the curses imposed on the earth and gave to the creatures of the earth the authority to become the children of God born of God {John 1:12–13}. Lord Jesus Christ reconciled the contradiction between the spirit and the matter: in His earthly life, the one can discern the omnipotent harmony of

Love of God the Father Who sent His word to save His creations

Love to those whom He came to save, to heal, to collect, and to take home

– the Universal Eternal LawTruth that creates the good through the unity of thought–words–actions even within the temporal collapsing singularity in which disintegration/death are the terms of existence

– the Almighty Power of God the Creator that heals infirmities and diseases of human spirit–mind and body/flesh and resurrects the dead ones

– the Completeness of all authority and all perfection.

Consequently, the new creation of God in Christ created through the Word–God is a new being who lives by the Holy Spirit of God and in God, the one in whom there is no more enmity and disharmony of the spirit {breath of life breathed by God – Genesis 2:7} and the flesh {“cursed” earth – Genesis 3; 4}, which makes possible sin {James 1:17–18, 21–25; 1 Peter 1; 2; 2 Peter 1; 1 John; 2 Corinthians 5:17–19; Ephesians 2:10, 14–22}.

However, the new man created in Christ is a certain firstfruit of new creations of God {James 1:18}. After the temporal phase of the existence of mankind is completed, the entire new world will come into being {Revelation 21:5}: the matter will be created anew, and “curses” of imperfection and death will be no more {Revelation 21; 22}.

There is no detail description of this new world, probably, because the perception of the mind that exists within the temporal collapsing singularity is not capable of accommodating the complete knowledge of the infinite eternity. Only some hints are given, which allow having general expectations {to see as in a mirror in obscureness – Corinthians 13:12} concerning the new everlasting world, in which

– the matter again will become eternal perfect substance sustaining life everlasting of the new creations 

– the children of God, who have already, even in this temporal earth, received the light of reason given by the Son of God, Jesus Christ – the Word–God,  Who is True God and Life Eternal {John 1:1–4; 10:30; 14:6–23; 17; 1 John 5:19–20; Revelation 21; 22}, will live in the presence of God forever.

For instance,

– Lord Jesus Christ, the Word–God, received the absolute power over all flesh {πασης σαρκοςJohn 17:2}, and He speaks of giving life everlasting to all those who are under His authority, and of knowledge of God as of the life everlasting {John 11:25–26; 17:1–3}. Consequently, the one can infer that it will be some immortal flesh enabled of carrying the reason/intelligence through the eternity with God

– the description of a new world seen by St. John the Apostle is given in the terms of the reality, in which the curses are no more, the tree of life bears fruits for twelve moons and the leaves for healing of the nations, and the inhabitants of this world have the Name of God on their foreheads {Revelation 21; 22}. Consequently, the one can infer that as soon as the curses will be eliminated, the matter will be again enabled to reveal the original splendor and beauty of perfect creation of Perfect God, and the world will live without diseases, suffering and death, which all are the consequences of the curses/modifications of the matter followed the original sin, murder of Abel, and perversion of the first materialists – the pre–Flood people who lived by flesh {Genesis 3; 4; 5; 6}

For those who are concerned with the practical aspects of resurrection (which are beyond this consideration), there are some texts in the Holy Scriptures {e.g., in: Daniel 7:9–14; Luke 20:27–39; 1 Corinthians 15; 2 Corinthians 5; 12; Revelation 6:9–11; 7; 14:1, 13; 20}.

The overall attitude toward the matter and therefore, human body of the one, who focuses on God and attempts to accomplish His commandments and inherit the everlasting life, might be inferred from the Epistles of the Apostles {James, 1 & 2 Peter, 1, 2, & 3 John; Ephesians; Galatians; Romans; 1 & 2 Corinthians, and all the others}. In summary, the one should

1/ cultivate – take diligent care of, nurture, and control – his body and to guard his mind and his body from the evil (the evil for the mind and body includes 1/ vice, corruption, perversion, abnormalities inconsistent with the human nature defined by The Ten Commandments and words of God, evil thoughts, words, and deeds, 2/ acceptance of false knowledge and lies, 3/ improper care of body and mind, unreasonable excesses and austerities)

2/ to live according to the human nature that is in accordance with the commandments of God, the essence of which is love: love to God, love to the others, and love to himself.

Those who learned how to accomplish the commandments of God and who embodied them into their world – the reality of their existence, achieve the original purpose set before Adam: to cultivate the earth rightly.

 

Matter as the evil

 

The example is the Manichean doctrine, which considered the matter (starting with human body) as the complete evil, which must be destroyed; Manichaeism is recognized as the worst heresy of those ever devised by the corrupted human imagination.

The Manichaeism is also the most dangerous heresy*7*, which originated the great confusion in those who were not in a possession of the complete knowledge of the Word–God; it threatened purity of the Christian teachings, because the Manicheans imitated the Christian terminology. Mani (A.D. third century, Persia), the founder of the sect, proclaimed himself the last prophet and “the Holy Spirit”; he chose own twelve “apostles,” promulgated own “ten commandments,” and wrote for his followers Fundamental Epistle – substitute for the Bible. Mani established the ritual, which imitated the ancient rites of the Zoroastrians and was named “the communion,” yet, contrary to the Christian Eucharist, it was the communion with one element – bread only.

Mani asserted that the salvation for the vast majority of the population, including majority of his own followers, is impossible: only insignificant part of mankind – the elite of his followers or “the Perfected” – will achieve the salvation, which Mani envisioned as the union with “the pure light.” Other parts of his sect (“the Hearers” or “the Believers”) have to go through the cycles of reincarnation. Their souls transmigrate into the plants (for which they might be freed by the Perfected) or into the Perfected. The only way to reach “the light” is becoming the Perfected one.

The Mani’s doctrine included concepts borrowed from

a/ the Persian doctrine of dualism –– the good and the evil are two primeval independent forces; this assertion is not compatible with Christian teachings – it is the greatest heresy against the power of God the Creator

b/ Gnosticism –– the concept of “evil mater,” which is not compatible with Christian dogma, because all creations of God are good and perfect, especially the human nature re–created by Lord God Jesus Christ

c/ the heathenism –– including the concept of reincarnation, which contradicts the Christian teachings.

Mani offered specific interpretation of the human abilities and many things sought after by the proud mind that rejects the Christian teachings and attempts to reach salvation through own efforts and specific kind of perversion, which Mani called “perfection” of the human nature. As soon as Mani asserted that the matter is the evil and the visible world is the creation of the evil, that human flesh is the manifestation of the evil, which had to be suppressed, and that only the Perfected one can achieve personal salvation by own efforts, through repentance, mystical knowledge, and severe suppression of the human nature, Mani forbade marriage for the Perfected. Men and women had to live in separate communities, in seclusion and separation from the world of the living, without any social activities and any obligations before the society, the civil authorities and the state; to conceive a child for the Perfected was “the height of immorality.” The very life became a sin because it sustains existence of the matter. For Mani’s followers, voluntary or suggested by the superior suicide (“endura”) through self–imposed starvation and other austerities became the method of perfection and salvation.

In general, the Manichaeism is the most inhumane and antisocial doctrine from all heresies ever invented by the human mind. The Roman Empire, and then, the Byzantine Empire exterminated the Mani’s heresy without any mercy.

Those Manicheans who survived persecutions in Byzantine Empire, fled and settled in Europe. During sixth–eleventh centuries, the underground sect penetrated another countries, reached India and Tibet, and in the twelfth century, revived under the name of Albigensians or Cathari in Southern France and Northern Italy.

The apparently virtuous manner of life of the Perfected contrasted so drastically with the life of the papal clergy and especially, with morality and behavior of some Roman popes in the fifteenth–sixteenth century [e.g., New Catholic Encyclopedia 10:959], that the Perfected attracted many followers and the Albigensians–Cathari–Manichean movement became the actual threat to the papal power. Eventually, the papal Inquisition exterminated the majority of those who followed Albigensians–Cathari–Manichean doctrine; however, their doctrine continued to live and penetrated the very core of the papal establishment; for instance,

a/ the papacy established for the laity communion with bread only and deprived the laity of the Chalice of Salvation

b/ the papal subjects are divided on the privileged above–the–law clergy endowed with the special “grace of the papal office” and the laity whose virtues are silence and unreserved obedience, who accept the vice as the virtue and the virtue as the vice and the black as the white, if the pope wills so, and for whom disobedience to the superior is the mortal sin

c/ the papal authority is based on deification of the pope, doctrine of papal infallibility, assertion that the pope is standing on the place of God and having the share of dignity of God, and authority to issue the laws that override the law of God, as well as the authority to alter the meaning of the good and the evil for the papal subjects, and to use any crime for accomplishment of the papal purposes that are automatically recognized as the “common good” of the papal community

d/ the pope Nicolas I (858–867) asserted that he is reincarnation of St. Peter the Apostle [in: La Due 86]; Thomas Aquinas also re–invented the concept of reincarnation; he also asserted that God is the source of the evil, recognizing therefore, the ancient concept of dualism (making the evil equal force to the good)*38* 

e/ marriage is forbidden for members of papal hierarchy, papal priests, monks, nuns

f/ monks and nuns must live in seclusion, voluntary unreserved obedience to “the superiors,” to practice austerities, self–tortures, and mortification of flesh (which are also the mandatory part of Ignatius of Loyola’s training for the Jesuits)*39*.

 

Materialism as the deification of the matter

 

In the antiquity, deification of the matter was manifested through the art of divination, magic, spell–casting, sorcery, creation of idols and deification the visible material objects starting with the Moon, planets, stars, beasts, stones, etc., which were practiced by Chaldean and Egyptian diviners, as well as generations of their followers. Primary assumptions included beliefs in materialization of deities through the works of human hands and human abilities to influence deities through manipulation with material things (magic rituals, spells, rituals of worship, sacrifices, divination through the internal organs of sacrificed animals, building of special places of worship, and so on and so on).

Deification of the matter began with the attempts to materialize the idea of God followed with creation of idols – idolatry, or idol–worship*32*. In general, any application of philosophy or logic toward creation of theological assumptions culminates in materialism: the matter takes the place of the spirit, and idols claim the place of God.

With the beginning of human civilization, worship to images, graven images, idols, beasts, planets, material objects was forbidden by the second of The Ten Commandments {e.g., in: Exodus 20:1–23; Leviticus 26:1; Deuteronomy 4:35–36; 5:1–10, 22–26; 6:13–14; 11:16–17; 16:21–22; 32:3–43}. However, idol–worship became the plague, which transformed the history of the chosen nations into the list of relapses into the heathenism*33*, *20*.

Materialism penetrated theological and philosophical knowledge, on which the Western civilization is built, through heathen philosophy, especially, doctrines of Aristotle, which became the foundation for Aquinas’ political theology – the official doctrine of the papal church of Rome*40*.

Three concepts of Aristotle reveal absurdity of assertions produced by the materialistic mind and illustrate how materialism works*41*, in spite of its obvious irrationality:

a/ deification of the matter

b/ materialization of gods

c/ rejection of the Absolute Good as irrelevant to the life of men.

With development of materialistic philosophical thought, which interprets the human reasoning as the function of the matter, the flock of perceivable idols (physical objects) was supplemented by the idols of the mind: ideas, doctrines, beliefs, and other figments of imagination, which also became the subjects of worship. Their materialization into the cults of the state and other human establishments, cults of political and religious leaders (e.g., deified state of Fascists and Nazis, personalities cult in Communist Russia, the deified infallible pope–head of the papal church of Rome who according to the articles of the papal faith is worshiped as the vicar of Christ standing on the place of God and having the share of dignity of God and without submission to whom eternal salvation is not possible*42*) as well as religious intolerance reaped and continue to reap the greatest harvest of death through

– persecution of the different–minded

– religious wars

– political purges

– imprisonment, torture, and extermination of those who confess different religions and have different political conviction

– undergoing persecution and extermination of Christians in the countries under totalitarian regimes and in the Islamic states.    

So, the first consequence of materialism is the outlook that

a/ asserts (and exploits) a possibility to manage/control the human mind through coercive power applied to human body

b/ justifies deceit and slavery, firstly, the slavery of the mind imposed through propagation of the false knowledge

d/ disregards value of life, because any living being is perceived just as a piece of the matter/animal that might be used for advantages of the other, deceived, enslaved, consumed, and destroyed when it either is worn out or is not needed. The most completed expression of the contemporary philosophical materialistic/heathen thought might be found in works of Friedrich Nietzsche, which for instance,

a/ propagate “morality” of the beast, for which nothing human exists and for which human morality is the sign of imperfection

b/ assert the only value of man as “the infallible machine for the state”

c/ justify extermination of the human matter: worn out “infallible machines,” which performed their service, excessive surplus of workers, and the “inferior” races*43*.

The world has paid the enormous price – millions of lives – for implementation of Nietzsche’s insane materialistic fantasies into the realities of Nazi Germany and World War II. The history of Communist countries, which transformed themselves into the gigantic concentration camps and prisons for mass extermination of the different–minded, illustrates the fruits of Marxism with its dialectic materialism and its derivatives – ideologies. 

Today materialism (and its consequences – corruption, immorality, and spiritless life followed with corruption of body and mind, disregard of human values, ruthless crimes and other realities of daily life) remains the deadliest plague of the contemporary societies.

 

 

Conclusion

 

Materialism is the assertion that the matter is the only reality of human existence: even thought, feelings, and will are the functions of the matter and must be explained as the features of the matter and in the terms of the matter.

It means that materialism fixes the human mind/intelligence/reason within the realm of collapsing and disintegrating matter as the only reality of human existence and deprives a human being of the life of the spirit: it does not recognize the human connection to God Who is the Spirit and therefore, deprives a human being of the eternity with God the Creator.

The one who has faith in God, defines materialism as the abnormality, some kind of lethal disease: a peculiar kind of “blindness” and “debilitation” of the mind {as it is in: Isaiah 6:9–11}, which cuts itself out of life by closing for itself the access to the Source of life.

The materialistic mind, which lives only by the material things and values of the matter, is incapable of perceiving the wholeness of the living evolving world that lives by the Spirit of God. Such a mind is caged in darkness of limited temporal setting; it lives its short life locked within the temporal collapsing singularity: limited time–space–complexity–bounded world, which is cut by the reasons of the dust {Job 28:4} from the eternal flow of the divine creative energy.

In such a lockdown, the common (and often imposed through deceit and deprivation of knowledge of God) outlook holds that life originated from the dust by chance and “self–organizing” systems assemble themselves within the chaos by themselves. The materialistic mind perceives itself as a dust, and expects to return into the dust along with a body, which has to be dissolved and to be consumed by other creatures of the dust:

 

materialism deprives of the life of the spirit –

through denial of existence of the spirit and association of the human intelligence with the matter,

materialism transforms the mind/reason into the part of disintegrating flesh

and a human being into a spiritless beast – the living dead

materialism deprives the mind of the knowledge of God the Creator and the Word–God –

the knowledge that is the everlasting life

materialism condemns the mind to ignorance and consequent impossibility to evolve –

to reach the optimal potency that it should actualize within the world of the matter.

 

Consequently, by restricting the world of man with the perceivable discernible and touchable things, materialism cuts the mind from the Source of life – God the Spirit, God the Creator Who was invisible and inaccessible for creatures of flesh {Exodus 32:18–20}, yet Who sent His Word to explain Him and to give knowledge of Him – the knowledge that is the everlasting life {John 1:1–18; 4:23–24; 14:6–26; 17}.

Transformation of the mind that initially acknowledged existence of God into the materialistic mind might be envisioned as the process of extinguishing the breath of God within a human being {in: Genesis 2:7; Job 27:3–4, 8–22}, so the unrighteous thoughts, evil words and deeds might become the way of life making the evil the only the reality and bringing forth collapse, destruction, ruin, and death {e.g., in: Genesis 6:1–6, 12–13}.  

In fact, materialism is crucifixion of the mind. The Phoenicians crucified human body and lifted the dead flesh up from the earth, to defy the Creator of life. Materialism fixes the mind on the cross of the matter making the dust the only reality of human existence:

 

materialism suffocates the mind through deprivation of knowledge of True God Who is the Spirit

materialism poisons reason/intelligence with false knowledge

making the mind unable to perceive the words of God

materialism kills the human reason/intelligence

by transforming the mind into a piece of disintegrating flesh, which lives only by flesh.

 

The Old Testament mentions those who shall leak the dust as the serpents crawling on the earth and who shall be confounded in their confinement {Micah/Michaias 7:17}, and the ones whose soul has been brought down to the dust and whose belly cleaved to the earth {Psalm 43(44):25}. These descriptions convey the essence of materialism: imitation of the arch–evil – the liar and father of lies and murderer from the beginning destined to eat the earth (the matter, or the dust) and to crawl upon the earth on its breast and belly {John 8:43–44; Genesis 4:15}.

Faith in God, focusing on God, and observance of His commandments protect the mind from materialism and from its author/source – the arch–evil {Psalm 90(91)}.

 

 

 

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈

Notes:

 

*1* In general sense, complexity is the universality of knowledge, which sustains the entirety of processes defining life of the world, when life is seen as the totality of cycles of transformations of the divine/universal energy of creation.  For instance, one of such cycles includes development of the mighty tree from the smallest seed {Matthew 13:31–32}.

The ancient philosophers came to the conclusion that the world of living beings should be described in the terms of time–space–complexity–bound singularity: positions within dimensions of time and space and possession with knowledge of life stipulate the Past, Present, and Future of any purposeful system.

In a context of evolving systems, complexity might be envisioned as the unity of three co–related and mutually enhancing phenomena, which (the unity) sustains the abilities to will and to accomplish a particular purpose:

a/ the possession of knowledge

b/ the abilities to perceive–absorb/learn–create new knowledge

c/ the power to apply knowledge – to embody it into the structures of the matter needed for achievement of some purposes within the world composed of the structures of the matter.

Concerning different aspects of complexity, see posting Introduction to the Systems, Folder Systems, Page_1.

 

*2* See postings in Folder Archive_2011: The Poor in Spirit, Page 2_April_May_2011, and The New That Never Was Before – Page 5_September_October_2011

 

*3* See postings in Folder 2013: The Focus, The First Word of Human Wisdom, and The Shift – Pages 1, 2, 3

 

*4* St. Paul the Apostle defines faith as the substance of all expectations and the evidence of the unseen {Hebrews 11:1}; those who have faith see the unseen and eternal {2 Corinthians 4:13–18}. Faith is the optimal state of reason, otherwise Lord God would not seek it in His creations. Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God – the Word–God, seeks faith on the earth {Luke 18:8; John 9:35–39; 11:25–26}, because He is της πιστεως Αρχηγον και Tελειωτην – the Author/Chief of faith and the One Who completes, makes perfect, consummates faith {Hebrews 12:2}. It means that by seeking faith on the earth {man is earth – Genesis 3:20}, the Lord seeks His very Own possession – human beings – that are His from the beginning and that He wants to collect, to redeem, to heal, and to bring home {in: Luke 15:1–10; John 10:1–30; 15:27; 17:6, 16; 1 Peter 1:17–25; Ephesians 1:3–23}.

Faith gives comprehension of the essence of all events that compose life of the soul–heart–mind. The Holy Scriptures provide the simple and detail instructions for all who have faith in God. It might be also said that faith defines process of human evolution, because faith allows obtaining completeness of knowledge of the Word–God and prepares for the eternity with God {in: John 6:27–29, 44–48; 8:31–32,34–36; 14; 15; 16; 17}.

Concerning faith, its nature and its manifestations, see also

 Introduction to Christianity: Faith, Folder Foundation, Page 4

Folder Archive_2008_2009:

Heresy and ImaginationPage 2_2008

The House of PrayerPage_3_2008–2009

The Gold Proved Through Fire Page_3_2008–2009

Folder 2013:

The Methods of LearningPage 1_January_February_2013

The Light and The Lazarus’ Story Page 3_April_2013

The Resurrection, The Ones Believing, The Great Calm, and The Precious Stone – Page 4_May_2013

The Expectations – Page 5_June_2013

 

*5* See postings in Folder Archive_2011, Philosophy – Page 1_January_February_2011, and in Folder Heathen Philosophy

 

*6* Concerning the Absolute Good and establishing the Absolute, see postings: The Absolute Good. The Perfect Law of Freedom – Folder 2013, Page 9_November_2013

Also, see postings in Folder 2013:

The Starting Point and The Methods of Learning – Page 1_January_February_2013

The Abundant Good – Page 2 _March_2013

The Creation and Renewal and The Light – Page 3 _April_2013

The Precious Stone – Page 4_May_2013

The Ultimate Truth, The Search for God Who is the Truth, and The Clarity –  Page  7_August_2013

The Creation of Man – Page 8_September_October_2013

 

*7* See postings:

Folder Archive_2008_2009: Heresy and PriestPage_2_2008

Folder Heathen Philosophy: Works of Augustine of Hippo and Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas,

Folder Political Theology: Political Theology, Hierarchical Church, and The Church Militants

 

*8* See posting in Folder 2013: The Works of God: Faith, Mercy, Creation  – Page 6_July_2013

 

*9* Κατα–νοη–σαι  derived of κατα–νοεωκατα–νοη–σις, where νοη– is derivative of νοος/νους that defines reason–thought–will – all activities of the mind; this particular derivative – κατανοησαι – denotes actions/possibilities of observation, focused attention, meditation upon, interpretation, opinion.

See also posting Imagination, Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page_2_2008

 

*10*  Γυμνοι – is translated as naked (lit. and fig.); other meanings include exposed, deprived of something, not covered

 

*11* See the concept of evil in Logic of Death, Folder Arhive_2008–2010, Page_2_2008–2009, and The Law and the Future (esp., Note 6 and 7), Archive_2012, Page 8_October_2012

 

*12* See postings in Folder Archive_2011: Separation and The HungerPage 1_January_March_2011, and The Vision of Light – Page 5_September_October_2011

 

*13* See posting Slavery, Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page 7_2008_2009

 

*14* Evolution is the totality of normal or natural processes called also “life” or “existence” for any of beings created by God; in general, natural life of each living creature is development of the maximal potency according to the God’s will/plan; “optimization” is the term describing some aspects of the evolution. The term “evolution” is applicable to all living purposeful systems: a human being, mankind, human society, etc.

In general, evolution is a life–cycle of any being, which exists for a purpose and which has an ability to create–absorb–accumulate–transmit knowledge of good and to embody the knowledge of good into the structures and systems of the surrounding world. This knowledge stipulates achievement of the particular purposes – creation of good, maintenance of life and optimization of other systems, actualization of technical and other kinds of progress or the processes intended to facilitate life and development of human beings and their creations/establishments.   

In brief, evolution is the process – development resulting in ability to ascend to the higher level of complexity. Knowledge is the force driving evolution. The last phase of the evolution of human mind is the ultimate choice between the evil imagination of man and the true knowledge of God: the evolution is accomplished when the mind discards all illusions, fantasies, and false assumptions, embraces the only true reality – the reality of the One Perfect – Absolute – God Whose power is the absolute power and Whose mercy is perfect mercy, and becomes that what it was created to be – the temple–dwelling of the Creator. The first step to the ultimate perfection is understanding that acceptance of the knowledge of God the Father and observance of the commandments of Lord God Jesus Christ precedes coming of the Spirit–Fire Who descends on those who are chosen to became the temple of God and to dwell with God in eternity of His kingdom {Luke 12:49; John 3:3–6; 7:39; 14:15–17, 23, 24; Revelation 21:27; 22:3–5; Isaiah 64:8}.

Then, knowledge of God should fill the mind and become the absolute truth and the only reality of existence:

God is the Absolute, the ultimate perfection, the only truth

the Love of God make a human being perfect creation ready for the eternity

the knowledge of God is the only valuable possession

there is none and there is nothing besides God.

It means also that in the world created by God and given into dominion of man, nothing is able or should attempt to take the place of God or pretend on possession by any of the attributes of God. Whatever good men are able to create, they create it only if the power of God acts through them.

In the terms of systems theory, evolution is the process of increasing the level/degree of complexity.

Concerning different aspects of evolution and evolving mind, see postings

Folder 2013:

The Nature of Knowledge, The Starting Point, The Methods of Learning, The First Word of Human Wisdom –  Page 1_January_February_2013

The Abundant Good  – Page 2_March_2013

Note 1 to The Creation and the RenewalPage 3_April_2013:

Folder Archive_2012:

The Gift of Completion, The Words of One Shepherd, and The Example – Page 9_November_December_2012

The Ultimate Purpose, The Ultimate Power, and The Ultimate Knowledge – Page 7_August_September_2012

The Plundered People, and The Foreknowledge –  Page  2_February_2012

The Transformation – Page 1_January_2012

Folder Archive_2011:

The Formula of Human Life, and Philosophy – Page 1_January–March_2011

The Rejected Knowledge  – Page 2_April_May_2011

Folder Archive_2010:

The Essence of Knowledge, The Impartiality of Perfection, and The First UltimatePage 1_January_March_2010

The Destiny of Man, The Knowledge and the Vision, Deprivation of Knowledge, and The Place of Knowledge – Page 5_October_2010

Folder Archive_2008_2009:

Time, The True Vine, The Seal, esp. Note 3, and Wisdom – Page 1_2008

Logic of Death, Imagination  Page 2_2008

The Prodigal Son and Judgment of Man – Page_3_2008–2009

The True and Last Judgment – Page_5_2009

Those Always Learning – Page_7_2008–2009

Notes in posting The Test – Page_8_2009

Folder The Systems: Introduction to the Systems

 

*15* The world described in the first and second chapters of Genesis was the evolving reality, because all living creatures received the blessing of God to evolve: they had to increase and multiply and fill their sphere {αυξανεσθε και πληθυνεσθε και πληρωσατεGenesis 1:22}. In addition to the blessing to evolve (to increase and multiply and fill the earth), man was given the purposes και κατακυρειυσατε αυτης– to subdue and to dominate the world filled with the all living creatures {Genesis 2:28}.

The traditional translation of Greek text “αυξανεσθε και πληθυνεσθε και πληρωσατε – Genesis 1:22, 28 – is “Increase and multiply and fill.”

However, the overall meaning of this logical block is much more complicated: it means to evolve, to accomplish/fulfill, to become complete:

in the word αυξανεσθε ξα ( and modified ξη/ξε  – is the root for words denoting development, growth, and evolution (lit. and fig.) as in 

αυξανω – to grow, enlarge, increase

εξελιξη – evolution

 the word πληρωσατε is the derivative of primary verb πλεω – to fulfill, to accomplish, to make full, and then, πληρης – complete, full.

Therefore, God’s blessing – αυξανεσθε και πληθυνεσθε και πληρωσατε defines the purposes of man as his own evolution (definitely, development as increase may not be only about physical parameters; multiplication and making all full/complete – that is reaching the higher level of development/complexity at which the full potency can be exercised), within the evolving world (whose inhabitants received the same commandment, therefore, the world itself should be capable of development necessary to sustain evolution of all its inhabitants), maintenance of the evolution of the world accommodating his existence, and reaching the completion.

Consequently, the one can infer that the man of the first two chapters of Genesis had three interconnected purposes:

 

to evolve himself, to become complete within the evolving world

to dominate the evolving world

to maintain evolution of the evolving world.

 

Then, after exile from the Paradise, the creative works of man are accomplished by the mind, by creating thoughts – the energy entities, which, having being embodied into the material structures (books, constructions, establishments, societies, empires, other edifices), maintain human existence within the world, which is collapsing because of cognition of the evil.

The creative abilities of the Old Testament’s mind might be seen as the remnants of rudimental abilities of the creation made in the image and after likeness of the Omnipotent Almighty God. In the New Testament, the creative abilities are the natural abilities of the beings that are born by the Word of truth and are evolving into the likeness of the Word–God and συνεργοι {1 Corinthians 3:9}  – co–workers of God .

With coming of the Word–God, a human being is re–created and the process of evolution as the imitation of God – the process, which would result in obtaining the eternal life in the presence of God – is initiated. It means that even within the limited temporal and collapsing world the human mind, through faith and knowledge of God as the gifts of the Holy Spirit, might be enabled to create the evolving systems as it was appointed by God from the foundation of the world.  

At the level of practical activities of men, Doctrine of the Absolute Good provides the foundation for creation of the evolving systems for maintenance of daily life of the societies and other establishments.

Concerning the logic of evolving systems based on the Doctrine of the Absolute Good, see postings in Folder 2013: The Starting Point and The Methods of Learning – Page 1_January_February_2013, The Creation and the Renewal – Page 3_April_2013,

 and also current and future postings:

1/ at this website – Folder Systems, esp. Introduction to the Doctrine of the Absolute Good

2/ at my blog Cyber Defense & Systems Logic  –  http : // cyberdefense–systems–logic.blogspot.com

3/ at my business website Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia  –  http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net

 

*16*  Deprivation of the true knowledge of God leads to insufficiency of a particular, vital, knowledge – the knowledge of own nature and of the world in which the mind has to survive and to accomplish its mission. In this case, mind is barred from access to the divine energy of creation (which is accessible through the faith). Consequently, the mind has no choice but to revert into the regime of insufficiency: it feeds itself with the surrogate – images of the matter/flesh, which are perceived/processed by the matter/flesh – and creates insufficient thoughts inadequate to the complexity of the considered subject (e.g., the drugs developed through the experiments on animals and then, applied to human beings trigger off the disorders, which are much worse than the diseases they claim to cure).

 Ultimately, the mind becomes unable to ascent to the levels of complexity appropriate to its nature: it becomes insufficient/sick and then, it is transformed into the living dead trapped within the evil time – the reality of death. Lord God refers to such minds as to those who see and hear, yet, do not perceive/comprehend, so, they do not turn to God that He would heal them {Matthew 13:10–15}.

In general, the meaning of degeneration of the human nature includes an inability to perceive the true meaning of everything, an inability to seek God, and an inability to find God in each of His creations; all these inabilities are the consequences of deprivation of knowledge of God followed with violations of the Law of God – The Ten Commandments, and evil committed to the others.

 Degeneration has many ugly faces, and although it might be accomplished through different processes, there are some general or common stages; for instance, 

–– a being begins to experience insufficiency; e.g., lack of proper judgment, inabilities to choose adequate purposes, to act adequately to the purposes, to identify problems and to make the right decisions

–– insufficiency, which develops because of incompliance with the Law, triggers incompatibility with the nature of the surrounding world; this incompatibility is referred to as perversion or degeneration

–– the being with the perverted–degenerated nature becomes either an instant threat to the surrounding (environment, other peoples and their establishments) or a core of latent destructive processes, which might spread over all connected systems

––  poor health: mental and physical disorders, illness

–– the next step is either annihilation through activation of own program of self–destruction (e.g., suicide) or termination by the others, because all systems (e.g., the Earth, the world, empire, state, religion, society) have the common property: they do not sustain existence of any being, which is not consistent with their nature and which by own degeneration threatens their existence or well–being.

A perverted being, which became inadequate to the conditions of continuing existence, has no alternative but to die. However, physical death is not the only consequence of perversion; besides, such a death never is instant and merciful. Spiritual and physical slavery (e.g., inability to sustain own freedom of choice and freedom of thinking), bestialization, loss of clarity of perception and weakening of the power of reasoning, incurable debilitating diseases and prolonged suffering are just some of the symptoms of degeneration triggered by the perversion–insufficiency resulting from the violations of the Law.

 

*17* Anti–evolution is the totality of processes of degeneration, decay, perversion, and corruption, which is completed with the annihilation.  Anti–evolution is different from the natural process of disintegration–death that is the natural end of all systems within the world of the structured matter. Anti–evolution defines unnatural degeneration/decay of the systems created for evolution–development.

In the terms of systems theory, anti–evolution is the decrease of the level/degree of complexity; for instance, degeneration and fading away of plants grown from the seeds sown in the unsuitable places, which had no means of proper development {Matthew 13:1–7, 18–22}.

 

*18* The work allotted to Adam {in Genesis 3:22–23: to cultivate the earth from which he was taken – εργαζεσθαι την γην εξ ης εληφθη}, obviously, included development of the abilities to control the matter, firstly, own actions–operations with the material things. The word εργαζεσθαι is a compound word, which conveys the entire spectrum of human activities from physical labor through development, establishment, and creation.

Cain the Adam’s firstborn, who was εργαζομενος την γυν – tiller of the earth as it was ordered to Adam, sacrificed to God the fruits of the earth.  God regarded not the sacrifice of Cain, and when Cain became sorrowful and his countenance felt, God told him that if he has brought it forth rightly but not sorted/arranged it rightly, he sinned. So, he should be calm, for its aversion/turning aside (αποστροφη) and its initiation/control (αρξεις) is for him {Genesis 4:3–7}: man is given the power to control the matter. This event signifies the next human discovery in a path of cognition of the evil, which is own failure to handle correctly the power over the subjects given into dominion. Such a failure results in

a/ inability to accomplish some work perfectly

b/ ability to sin; sin – αμαρτιμα , αμαρτια – means the missed mark, mistake, sin, guilt, crime, offense, imperfection, impairment, disease; in theology, a sin is failure to observe the words of God, violation of His law/commandments, inability to accomplish the purposes/will of God for the sake of which man came into existence

c/ ability to be negatively affected by own imperfect handling of the matter, which, in theory, should not impact the reasoning and countenance as it happened with Cain {Genesis 4:5–7}, and which was the beginning of mental disorders resulting from sin (loss of sanity of judgment, envy, aggression, desire to kill) and followed with criminal actions (murder).

Sin is a failure to achieve the purposes, inability to accomplish the mission of man, firstly, inability to create the good that is to fulfill the Law/will of God. Sin is anomaly – abnormality of human behavior issuing from perversion of the human nature and, therefore, violation of the Law of God. Ignorance of the soul and ignorance of the mind make man able to sin; insufficient love and insufficient knowledge of the truth are the roots of every sin and every evil.

Since, sin is considered as a disease of the soul, which wastes soundness of body; only after man acknowledges his sins before God (that is comprehends the reasons of his failure and imperfection), he receives forgiveness; then, he might be cured {Psalm 31(32):3–7; Luke 5:17–26, 30–32}.

Furthermore, the sins of our ancestors, for which forgiveness of God was not sought, as well as our own {Exodus 34:6–7; Psalm 105(106):6} are the reasons of our misery: we eat the spoiled fruits, grown by all those who lived before us, as well as those we brought upon the earth.

The Christian theologians St. Maximus the Confessor and St. Gregory Palamas [St. Maximus the Confessor 34 in: The Philokalia 2:244; St. Gregory Palamas §8 in: The Philokalia 4:295] consider sin as a state of the freely chosen death – death of the soul, which rejected God. Although the soul is immortal, without God it does not have life, because if it does not live in God, it dwells in death.

Sin is lawlessness and evil; a sinner is a slave of sin, the one of the arch–evil and “not of God.” To the contrary, man sanctified by the Word–God is born of the Holy Spirit of God; he dwells in God Who is perfect love, and he is the dwelling of the Holy Spirit of God; therefore, he cannot sin: the children of God do not sin {John 8:31–47; 14:16–17; 15:1–26; 17; 1 John 3:3–9, 14–15; 4:7–21; 5:12, 16–18; James 1:13–15; 1 Corinthians 3:16–17; 6:19–20}.

 

*19* In the Septuagint, it is written: αυτος σου τηρησει κεφαλην, και συ τηρησεις αυτου πτερναν {Genesis 3:16}.

In the English versions of the Bible, the word πτερναν  is translated as heel, that is as a derivative of φτερνα (as in Αχιλλεια φτερνα – Achilles' heel, of the Greek myths).

However, its origin is more complicated: it is a derivative of πτ πτa/ε πτερ– from which the cluster of words is originated:

πτερον – wing, feather (of a bird); also πτερυγας – in the reference to God in Psalm 90(91):4

πτερωνο – to grow/acquire wings

πτερνις –  pternis – predator bird

πτερινος –  made of feathers, having wings

In general, πτερναν should also denote wings, or something similar, which is needed to carry up, to lift up, to soar, to be winged. 

The Greek word τηρησει(ς) stands for to keep guard over, to watch over, as a derivative from τερος – to watch by keeping eye on, or τηρεω – to guard, to keep, to observe.

Thus, if to accept both meanings, man is advised to watch over his base (matter, body) and his wings (reason, mind).

 

*20* See posting in Folder Archive_2011: The Authority to Survive – Page 3_June_July_2011.

Concerning the Orphism (mythical serpentine theology that sustains theological–philosophical–political doctrines of Plato, Aristotle, and their followers) and some of its consequences see postings:

Folder Archive_2012: The Vineyard and The Lessons of the Vineyard – Page 5_May_June_2012

Folder Archive_2011: The Earth without the Foundation – Page 2_April_May_2011

Folder Heathen_Philosophy:

Heathen_Philosophy: the Beginning (Subchapters: The Minoan Legacy, Egyptian Civilization, and The Orphic Doctrine) – Page 1

Philosophy: Plato – Page 2

Folder World & War – Ecumenism

and also

Ancient Civilizations:  Legacy Overview – website http: // systemslogic-by-alicesofia.net, Page 6_Library – files for download

 

*21* See posting The Mirror – Folder Archive_2010, Page 2_April_June_2010

 

*22* The philosophical doctrine of materialism postulates that the matter is the only reality of human existence: even thought, feelings, and will are the functions of the matter and must be explained as the features of the matter and in the terms of the matter.

 

*23* See postings:

The Power of Coercion, Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page_6_2008_2009

The Absolute Power, Folder Archive_2010, Page 4_September_2010

Works of Augustine of Hippo and Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, Folder Heathen Philosophy

 

*24* See posting Creation of Man – Folder 2013, Page 8_September_October_2013

 

*25* See postings in Folder Archive_2011: The Possession of Life – Page 5_September_October_2011, and The Immortality – Page 6_November_December_2011

           

*26* Concerning καιρος, see postings: The Completion, Folder Archive_2008–2009, Page_4_2008–2009, The Future, Folder Archive_2010, Page 4_September_2010, and Pattern #5, Folder Systems, Page_2_Patterns & Questions

 

*27* Concerning the Phoenicians see,

The Creation and the Renewal and The Lazarus’ Story – Folder 2013, Page 3_April_2013

Folder Archive_2008_2009:

Wisdom – Page_1_2008

The Curse of Cain – Page_5_2009

Folder Archive_2010:

The Heathenism – Page 5_October_2010

Ancient Civilizations:  Legacy Overview – website http: // systemslogic-by-alicesofia.net, Page 6_Library – files for download

 

*28* Excerpt from the Concept of Death:

Within the world of the matter enabled to carry life,

a/ life is a cycle of energy transformations accomplished according to the universal law, which defines the nature of a living being, and by the universal power that enables manifestation of the law; life is completed and finalized with disintegration of the wholeness/unity of soul/spirit–mind/reason–body/flesh/matter at the point when a living being

– either evolves to the point of optimum–development of the highest complexity determined by the parameters of its existence (time–space–complexity)

– or completes irreversible degeneration with inability to live – maintain life as the wholeness of spirit–mind–body (irreversible degeneration is triggered with inability to live according to the nature defined by the Law of God; the first signs of irreversible degeneration include mental and physical disorders, birth of abnormal and malformed offspring, and inability of normal reproduction; concerning degeneration, see also posting The Shift – Folder 2013, Page 3_April_2013)

b/ human life is the actualization of the unity of the law, power, and energy, which are manifested as the wholeness of soul/spirit–mind/reason–body/flesh/matter actualized at a particular time–space–complexity setting (set of the energy fields whose operations are detected as temperature, pressure, force of gravity, other physical parameters, magnetic and other forces and fields, which make possible life as a particular cycle of energy transformations completed with particular changes in complexity, energy, and material structures, which carry a particular living entity)

c/ death begins with disintegration of the unity/wholeness

 

through release of energy (soul/spirit),

 because the life–cycle is completed

either with the evolution–development of the highest complexity and consequent ability to be transferred

into another realm with other definitions of life

or with degeneration–inability to sustain life–sustaining transformations of the energy

according to the nature defined by the current parameters (the material world)

discontinuation of the cohesive power

 (flow of the energy derivatives – information/knowledge perceived/absorbed–created–processed–transferred by the mind),

because of release of the energy

(separation of the soul/spirit/energy and body/matter/flesh)

disintegration of the material structures (body/flesh),

which, with the release of energy and discontinuation of the cohesive power, have to disintegrate

according to the law that defines the nature of the temporal world of the matter.

 

Death is completed with release of the material elements, which were the body – set of the material structures sustaining wholeness/living being as the manifestation of the unity of the law–energy–power, and which will sustain life of the next generations of the living beings.

The human life is possible only within the special  time–space–complexity settings, or the set of the energy fields, which are capable of sustaining existence of the unity/wholeness – living being. With death of a particular human being, the entire world is changed because it loses energy and power, which were a particular human soul/spirit–mind/reason – the energy entity that, in accordance with the law defining the nature, was enabled to actualize some power at some levels of complexity according to the parameters of the temporal time–space–complexity setting, which sustained its existence.

With death of a human being, the entire world of the matter loses some of the vital reserves (including a point of the energy–transforming–transferring net maintaining existence of the world) and its time–range of existence is shortened. Birth of a new human being also brings a world closer to fulfilling of its καιρος {Revelation 6:9–11; 22:10–14}; it does not compensate death of the departed one:

with each completed life–cycle,

the law is fulfilled

the energy left

while, within the world of the matter controlled by the law of complexity,

the reduction of life (simplification) to manifestation of the power without law and without energy is not possible.

 

In summary, the eternity does not exist for the limited temporal world, in which time, irreversibility, complexity, and collapse (disintegration/death) are enabled for separation of cycles of transformations of the universal energy.

See also posting Logic of Death – Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page_2_2008_2009

 

*29* Irreversibility is impossibility to stop, decelerate, reverse, or interrupt the interminable purposeful transformations of the energy and processes of cognition governed by the universal law. Irreversibility in its exact meaning – impossibility to reverse a process – manifests itself when the structured matter is enabled to carry and to absorb the purposeful information.

The law of irreversibility of cognition controls the dimension of time; without irreversibility of cognition, the optimization and development as the increase of mind’s complexity are not possible (the increase of complexity is the development, also referred to as optimization and evolution).

The law of irreversibility determines the possibility to accomplish the purposes, thus to achieve finality–definiteness of the results consistent with the system’s nature and assumed–created–conveyed knowledge.

In accordance with the law of irreversibility of cognition, once learned knowledge does not perish, it advances: the knowledge of the good leads to the perfection; the knowledge of the evil with each new generation demands more sacrifices and consumes more lives and resources.

Within the wholeness of the human mind, knowledge, complexity, and time–space dimension are unified by the law of irreversibility of cognition.

Concerning irreversibility, see The Concept of Time in The Invincible Empire, Chapter 2.

 

*30* In brief, knowledge might be defined as the spiritual and mental power to act efficiently for the sake of achievement of some purposes, in accordance with the nature of the world, human nature, and the nature of objects/establishments, which man uses for achievement of his purposes. 

See postings: The Nature of Knowledge, The Starting Point, The Methods of Learning, The First Word of Human Wisdom – Folder 2013, Page 1_January_February_2013 

 

*31* See postings:

Folder Archive_2010: Deprivation of Knowledge and The Destiny of Man – Page 5_October_2010, and The Richness of Illusion – Page 1_Janyary_March_2010

Folder Archive_2011: The Rejected Knowledge – Page2_April _May_2011, The Bear and the Pigeon – Page 3_June_July_2011, The Unknown Path – Page 5_September_October_2011, and The Ignorant and Cursed – Page 6_November_December_2011

 

*32* See postings:

Folder Archive_2008_2009: Imagination –  Page_2_2008; Mysteries  Page_7_2008–2009

Folder Archive_2010: Idolatry and Divination – Page 4_September_2010, and The HeathenismPage 5_October_2010

Folder Archive_2011: The Authority to Survive, esp. Note 4  – Page 3_June_July_2011, and Philosophy – Page 1_January_March_2011

Postings in Folders: Heathen Philosophy, Political Theology, and World and War

           

*33* See postings The Vineyard and The Lessons of the Vineyard – Folder Archive_2012, Page 5_May_June_2012, and The Ancient Kings – Folder Archive_2008_2009, Page 8_2009 

 

*34* Some researchers hold that atheism as denial of God and the heathenism as the set of cults of deities apparently are incompatible. The ancient heathens treated atheists as the criminals who should be punished by death or incarceration and even do not deserve the proper burial.

For instance, Plato invented a special oppressive structure – the Nocturnal Council – to exterminate atheism from the life of the “perfect” (slave–owning) communities [Laws 908a–909c]. Yet, in fact, atheism is a collective name for the kind of heathen religions, in which the irrational systems of beliefs (essentially identical with the concepts, symbols, and idols of ancient pagans) take place of traditional deities.

Clement of Alexandria (AD 150–225) defines atheism as the substitution of the names of non–existing gods for God. The link, which Clement of Alexandria established between two apparently incompatible systems, concatenates the heathenism and atheism as a parent and a child. Some of the contemporary authors accepted the similar vision of atheism, e.g., Jaroslav Pelican writes that atheism and polytheism are synonyms [Pelican 11].

Indeed, modern atheistic philosophy sustains the ideologies, which deify rulers, leaders of the leading party, or the state itself (e.g., communism, fascism), and which in fact are different version of the false religion.

In view of that, the reason for the Plato’s distaste for atheism could be found in unwillingness of the atheists to accept the rules of the majority; such unwillingness made them the threat to political and social stability of the Polis/state envisioned as the “perfect” community. For Plato, community was “perfect” if it was established on the principles of comprehensive control, unification, and “harmonized” stability of the society with fixed and unchangeable structure. Such “perfect” community consists from groups of similar replaceable and incapable of progress–deviation–revolt social animals–men – slaves owned by their own establishment; the beliefs, thinking, and behavior of such political animals/slaves are designed and controlled by “gods,” usually, by the deified political elite, or by the “divine” hierarchy headed by a deified ruler.

The ultimate goals of atheism and all doctrines, which have atheism as the apparent or implied basis, include complete elimination of God from the life of men:

–– atheism attempts to erase the image of God from the conscience and mind, therefore, to downgrade man at the level of beast; so in fact, it pursues the purposes of the Orphics who substituted the arch–evil (their “absolute divine animal” – arch–serpent referred in the Holy Scriptures as the dragon, basilisk, crooked serpent, viper) for God the Creator and asserted inferiority of human being and superiority the beasts

–– atheism substitutes the beliefs in some “abstract good” for the faith in God; such a substitution is the cover–up for inhumane essence of the false religion, because there is no good without the Absolute Good of God.

The logical reality of anti–evolution founded upon atheism and other heathen doctrines, which do not recognize true knowledge of God, accommodates the processes of dehumanization of man, transformation of man into the beast without any remnants of humanity, and consequent perversion of the nature and annihilation of humans and animals.

Suffering, impoverishment, denigration, and extermination of countless human beings in post–1917 Russia under the authority of Marxists–Bolsheviks–Communists and the results of the atheistic ethics–free sciences, which became the sciences of death, illustrate the general potential of atheism.

 

Also, see postings:

Folder Archive_2008_2009: Those Always Learning – Page 7_2008_2009

Folder Archive_2010The Nature of Things, Page 2_April_June_2010, Idolatry and Divination – Page 4 _September_2010, The HeathenismPage 5_October_2010

Folder Archive_2011: The Defense – Page 4_August_2011, The Misconception – Page 5_September_October_2011, The Similarity – Page 6_November_December_2011

 

*35* See postings in Folder Foundation: The Road to God, Page_5, and The One Coming to Christ – Page_6

 

*36* The Augustine’s doctrine Compelle Intrare (Compel Them To Come In) reveals how Augustine misinterprets the Gospels according to his needs and pretends to prove that the Gospels justify coercion by the Church and use of the force of the state oppressive structures when it is needed to return heretics and schismatics into possession of the community.

In the commentary to the parable of Great Dinner {Luke 14:16–24}, where the Master of household sends his servants to gather into his house all whom they find instead of the guests who rejected the Master’s invitation, Augustine compares those whom the servants gathered from “the highways and hedges” with heretics. Augustine makes the following assertions [Political Writings 190–193, 196–199, 203–207, 217–219, etc.; also ref. and qt. from different Augustine’s works in: Deane 195–215]:

1/ the people from “the highways and hedges” had been compelled to enter the master’s house; therefore, the Church has the responsibilities “received by divine appointment” to conduct the “righteous persecution... carried on in the spirit of love” to compel heretics to return to the Church

2/ the state and its rulers have the “obligation” to support Church in her struggle against heresies and schisms; they must use the power of state to punish heretics, and the civil ruler–servant of God must become the servant of Church.

Augustine justifies his assertions with the example of successful coercion of the Donatists – heretics who became Catholics under the fear of penalties. However, even if fear transforms the heretics into the Catholics, it does not make them the Christians, because {Matthew 5:43–48; Luke 17:20–21; John 1:12–13; 14:23; 15:12–17; 1 John 4:7–18}

a/ the human power of coercion cannot force the Holy Spirit of God to come and to dwell within the apparently obedient victim of coercion and to make anyone into the temple of God, yet the meaning of Christianity is presence of God within a human heart–soul–mind, when a human being becomes the child of God, the carrier of the Holy Spirit of God

b/ the true Christians do not coerce men to change their beliefs, do not punish people for their beliefs – they imitate the perfection of God and love all creations of God irrespective of the convictions and manner of life; for the Christian, only God is the ultimate and Supreme Judge of all

c/ God of the Christians is the perfect Love that has neither fear nor suffering: the true Christians have no fear, only love (the only mention of fear in the Christian teachings is the reference to the “fear of God” as the fear to violate the commandment of God and pervert own nature, yet even this fear vanishes when a human being advances in love and reverence to God until such a degree when violation of the commandments of God simply becomes impossible)

d/ such earthly criteria as number of believers/subjects/followers, public confessions, apparent sanctity, force of coercion, power of the ruler/state, etc. do not describe the Kingdom of God. Faith, love to God, love to one another, and freedom are the properties of the Kingdom of God, and the Kingdom of God is within man.

 

Concerning Compelle Intrare, other doctrines of Augustine, his Manichean past and conversion in Platonism, see Works of Augustine of Hippo, Folder Heathen Philosophy, Page 6. Concerning consequences of Compelle Intrare, its development by Thomas Aquinas for justification of the Inquisition and the works of the Inquisition, see Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas  in Folder Heathen Philosophy, The Hierarchical Church and The Church Militants in Folder Political Theology

 

*37* Concerning bolshevism, communism, Marxist dialectics, and their foundation – Plato–Aristotle’s utopia, see

works of Plato: Republic and Laws

works of Aristotle: Oeconomica, Eudemian Ethics, Magna Moralia, and Politics

The Invincible Empire by Alice A. Savitsky

postings at this website –

Folder Heathen Philosophy, Pages 1, 2, 3:  The Beginning, Plato, and Aristotle.

Folder Archive_2008_2009Slavery, Page_7_2008–2009

Folder Archive_2010: The Future – Page 4_September_2010, Deprivation of Knowledge – Page 5 _October_2010

Folder Archive_2012: The Virtue and the Survival – Page 6_July_2012

 

*38* See the posting Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas  in Folder Heathen Philosophy, and the following excerpt from The Invincible Empire, Chapter 6:

The  Aquinas’ writings reveal acceptance of the concept of reincarnation.

In particular, when Aquinas considers the difference between two terms – union and assumption, he notices, that the assumption means “taking to oneself from another,” therefore, “the united” and “the assumed” are not identical: the divine nature is united, the human nature is assumed, and the Incarnation is assumption, especially assumption of the mind [Summa Theologica  III Q.2 a8; Q.5 a4 o3, a].

The substitution of “the assumption” for “the union” opens for Aquinas the ground for the speculations concerning possibility for one “Divine Person” to assume two human natures. He concludes that as soon as the divine power is infinite and unlimited, nothing prevents the “Divine Person” to assume another human nature. Aquinas supports his conclusion with the following analogy: as a man who put on two garments remains one man in two garments, likewise, the “Divine Person” who assumed two human natures would be one man. Then, if many men have one thing in common, they might be considered as “one people”; therefore, two human natures assumed by one Divine Person would have “a uniform relation” to this “Divine Person” [Summa Theologica  III Q. 3 a7 ro2, ro3].

Aquinas borrowed this analogy from Socrates who explains his concept of reincarnation with the comparison of immortal soul with a tailor who makes and wears out many coats [Plato Phaedo 87b–e]. The Aquinas’ speculations concerning possibility for one “Divine Person” to assume two human natures reiterate the heathen concept of reincarnation, yet, with the subtle difference:

– if Socrates considers the reincarnation in general, as the universal order for any soul,

–  Aquinas is restrained with the impossibility to make openly the concept of reincarnation the official article of the Catholic faith in spite of the expressed belief of the pope Nicolas I (858–867) that he is reincarnation of St. Peter the Apostle [in: La Due 86]. He employs the term “the Divine Person” who wears such garments as the human nature; he completes his arguments with the assertion of “a uniform relation to the Divine Person,” which (uniform relation) is intended to support the concept of succession and to suggest that each pope is a new garment of the “Divine person.”

Other Aquinas’ texts [Summa Theologica  III Q. 8 a1 a; Q.12 a3 a; Truth Q.29 a7 ad3, ad11] illustrate the additional working applications of the “uniform relation” to God:

1/ the faithful are the members of Christ; all together they (including Christ) constitute “one mystical person”

As soon as all Catholics constitute “one mystical person” with Christ, the Aquinas’s assertion provide a possibility to share with God the responsibility for assassinations, tortures, robberies, persecutions, massacres (e.g., the St. Bartholomew Night’s massacre), and other crimes committed by the Catholic “members of Christ” against the non–Catholics (including the Jews, the Moors, the Protestants, and the Orthodox Christians)

2/ God established Christ as the Head of the Church; thus, the works of the head (Christ) are the works of members (the faithful)

This assertion provides the papal hierarchy with a possibility to ascribe to God the crimes of the Inquisition, the Crusades, and other “works” of “one mystical person” – the papal establishment

3/ prelates hold “the primacy in the Church” because they “represent the person and take place of Christ”

This assertion elevates deeds of the papal hierarchy at the level of the acts of God and provides a possibility to ascribe to God the responsibility for all crimes and vices of all prelates and popes committed during all history of the papacy [e.g., in: Encyclopedia of the Vatican and Papacy; New Catholic Encyclopedia].

In conjunction with the Aquinas’ assertion that God is the source of evil and unjust human laws [Summa Theologica  I Q.48 a2 ad3, a3; Q.49 a1, a2, a3; Q.103 a7; I–II Q. 93 a3 ro2 ro3; Q.103 a7 ro1; Truth Q.3. a4 ad7; Q.5 a2 r, ad4], the meaning of the referred above texts comes to the following assertions, which are sacrilegious for the Christians:

1/  many men can take the place of God; this assertion provides the pillar for the concept of papal succession and deification of the pope

2/ the deeds of the prelates–representatives of God, other members of the papal hierarchy, and all the Catholics who constitute “one mystical person” (e.g., the Crusades and the Inquisition, mortal sins of popes and priests, sale of the forgiveness of sin) are the deeds of God.

 

*39* See postings:

Folder Archive_2008_2009: Heresy and The Priest –  Page_2_2008

Folder Archive_2010: The Fruits – Page 2_April_June_2010

Folder Heathen Philosophy: Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas

Folder Political Theology: The Hierarchical Church and The Church Militants

 

*40* See Philosophy:  Aristotle in Folder Heathen Philosophy, Page 3, and The Invincible Empire, Chapters 4 and 8

 Doctrine of Thomas Aquinas in Folder Heathen Philosophy, and Introduction to Political Theology – in Folder Political Theology

 

*41* Three concepts of Aristotle reveal absurdity of assertions produced by materialistic mind; they also reveal the puzzling nature of human fallacies: why the obvious irrationality becomes the commonly accepted truth? So these concepts are

a/ deification of the mater

b/ deification of the earth and materialization of gods

c/ rejection of the Absolute Good as irrelevant to the life of men.

A/ Aristotle elevates the matter at the level of deity and justifies the deification with the following assertions (1 through 3).

1/ The world is eternal; it has neither beginning nor end; it contains infinite time and embraces “it in itself”: the world was not created and cannot be destroyed [Aristotle Heavens II.i]

The assertion modifies the Plato’s concept of the world, which, once created, would last forever. In fact, Aristotle follows the concepts of Empedocles (nothing comes into existence from nothing, and that what exists would not be destroyed) and Xenophanes (world was not created; it is eternal and would not vanish) [Aristotle On Melissus 975b; Xenophanes of Colophon Fragments A37].

2/ The world is made from four elements, which are not eternal because they are opposite and destructive of each other, and pass into each other in incessant motion [Aristotle Heavens II.iii]

The assertion elaborates the Plato’s notion that all four elements have the same invisible, formless, “all–embracing,” and intelligible substance [in: Plato Timaeus 49–51]. The concept of transmutation of the mutually destructive opposites begets the concept of intermediate position as the basis of goodness and the foundation of “praiseworthiness” of men as the source of social stability and order (that re–states the ancient concept of the Middle Way). It also is a practical interpretation of the Plato’s idea that “the cause of disequilibrium is inequality” [Plato Timaeus 57–58]. Yet, if, according to Xenophanes, who is the main source of Plato and Aristotle’s materialistic fantasies concerning the nature of the Universe, the eternal cannot perceive or to be joined with anything temporal [Xenophanes of Colophon Fragments A34], similarly, it can neither be created from nor contain the “not eternal” elements. It means that, according to the Aristotle’s own logic, the eternal world cannot consist from the perishable or mutually destructive elements; therefore, the Aristotle’s image of the Universe is logical absurd.

3/ Immortal god is in eternal motion, his activity is eternal life; since the heaven has the circular body, which “by nature” has circular eternal motion, the heaven is of the nature of god – a divine body [Aristotle Heavens II.iii].

This assertion is recitation of the Plato’s idea of the heaven/world/universe as the visible, living, uniquely created and immortal god, with the “fixed stars” – living, divine, eternal, and forwardly rotating [Plato Timaeus 40a–b, 92c], and it is the explicit deification of the matter (“visible, living, uniquely created and immortal god, with the “fixed stars” – living, divine, eternal”), which the followers of Plato and Aristotle inevitably absorb with acceptance of their philosophical doctrines, because there is no possibility to accept knowledge without accepting its framework.

In other works, Aristotle, following Xenophanes who envisioned god as eternally motionless [Xenophanes of Colophon Fragments A36], asserts that god – “prime motor” or “prime mover” – is unmovable [Aristotle Physics VIII.vi.258b; VIII.ix.266a] that contradicts the previous assertion. However, inconsistency of assertions usually signifies the fallacy of primary assumptions.

B/ In attempt to construct the physical model of the Universe and to explain the foundation of the cosmos and the essence of life, Aristotle creates the following chain of statements and arguments (from 1 through 5).

1/ Change is the movement: “anything moves or changes,” and “everything moves by changing its place” [Aristotle Physics V.i.224a; On Melissus 976b].

This assertion almost literally repeats the Socrates’ assertions [e.g., Plato Theaetetus 182a, c, e]. The movement is transition between two points: the starting point and the targeted point–objective of movement.

For Socrates, the change constantly generates the Universe and the Universe itself is in constant change; existing Universe is the stream where all things are changing as if they are streams, or the process of constant transformation–evolution, where the discernible movement is only an insignificant part of the complex process. To the contrary, even discussing infinity, void, chaos, unity, Aristotle demonstrates the simplified mechanical vision and operates with the elementary physical categories [e.g., Aristotle On Melissus]. However, if the Plato–Aristotle’s Universe is god, it cannot move or change because the Plato–Aristotle’s god is immovable and unchangeable; therefore, the deification of the Universe logically contradicts to the vision of the change as the source of life.

2/ “All goals of movement” are unmovable “forms and conditions and place” [Aristotle Physics V.i.224b].

According to Aristotle, as soon as some movement reaches the goal, it reaches an unmovable form, condition, or space. It means that either the goal of movement is unreachable or the natural end of each movement is the motionlessness. The centuries later, the inference from the Aristotle’s mechanical vision of the Universe produced the idea of entropy with prediction of energy death, when any movement within the Universe would stop.

3/ Genesis and perishing are not a movement: genesis because there is nothing to move before its existence, and perishing because its opposite is genesis; therefore, only three types of movement exist: qualitative, quantitative, and local. If a thing moves, it must be kept in motion by something – by the inner or outer force or agent. Movement within the Universe is eternal; it never began and will never end. There are three categories of things within the Universe: a/ always in motion, b/ always in rest, c/ neither in motion nor in rest. [Aristotle Physics V.i.224a–b, 225b; VII.i.241b; VIII.vi.258b, 260a; VIII.iii].

Logically, within the Universe, which is in the constant movement and change, the state of rest or motionless is relative. Thus, Aristotle’s categories of things in the constant rest and in neither in motion nor in rest within the constantly moving and changing Universe are the irrational constructions.

4/  The “prime motor”– the source of the everlasting movement within the Universe – is

a/ whether singular or plural

b/ in a uniform and constant relation to all things which are in motion

c/ not divisible, without parts

d/ not dimensional [Aristotle Physics VIII.vi. 258b; VIII.x.267b].

The initial argument contains a definition of the prime motor as “whether singular or plural” [Aristotle Physics VIII.vi. 258b] that immediately points out the inconsistency of the entire construction. For example, if each prime motor is not dimensional and if this prime motor is in a uniform and constant relation to all things, how Aristotle could determine, is it one motor or many? If there is many “prime motors,” there is no uniform and constant relation to all things, because, if there are many prime motors, each motor should have its own meaning of uniform and constant relation, which originates the own world inaccessible or indiscernible with the things, which have another type of uniform and constant relation. Besides, if the “prime motor” keeps a uniform and constant relation to all moving things, there is no any discernible change within such Universe, and movement itself does not have any sense or meaning. The Aristotelian notion of the “prime motor” illustrates absurdity of application of physics for explanation and elaboration of philosophical concept. Obviously, the Aristotle’s speculations are intended to re–tell the Plato’s assertion that “the Maker” made only one Universe [Plato Timaeus 31 a–b] with the only comprehensible for Aristotle language – the language of natural science (in this particular case – physics), thus to provide the kind of material proof of philosophy. Yet, they disclose incompatibility of the levels of consideration, therefore, irrationality of inconsistent reasoning. When Aristotle became the recognized co–author of the papal official doctrine – Aristotle–Aquinas’ political theology, the assumption “whether singular or plural” was intentionally disregarded, and Giordano Bruno paid with his life for his assertion of existence of many worlds, which probably could be controlled by many deities, although the Bruno’s assertion logically follows from the Aristotle’s physical–material “theology.”

In his description of the life–supporting processes of the Universe, Aristotle substitutes the familiar and understandable physical “movement” for the obscure for him philosophical “change”; such substitution apparently creates an opportunity to use the objects of sense to clarify “the objects of intellect”: Aristotle asserted that only things that can be verified by the senses (that it can be perceived as the material objects) can prove the truth of assertion [e.g., Aristotle Magna Moralia I.i.21–26].

However, existence of the “not dimensional prime motor” cannot be confirmed with the Aristotle’s own methods [Aristotle Eudemian Ethics I.vii.15; I.viii.19–20; II.ix.4; Magna Moralia I.i.21–26], because “the prime motor” – apparently, the Aristotle’s addition to the names of Greek gods – is not available for prove and substantiation, and its properties cannot be connected with politics and economics; therefore, according to Aristotle’s own assertions, the very idea of  “the prime motor” is of no value for the “best of men.”

5/ The Universe, as each god, is motionless, because it is self–stabilized and contained in itself. Consequently, the Earth “is in fact motionless” and stays in center because it also “stabilizes itself” [Physics III.v. 205b].

However, if something is motionless, does it need self–stabilizing, and how it can stabilize itself in a center, if it is motionless? Obviously, Aristotle devised such vision of the Earth for confirmation of the concept of deity as motionless “prime motor,” yet, it became an illustration how physics produces the irrational theological notion.

Although the Aristotle’s concept of deified Earth – motionless self–stabilizing god in the center of the Universe is an absurd idea incompatible with Christianity, Thomas Aquinas and other Catholic theologians accepted this construction and made it the article of the papal faith. The history of astronomy reflects the struggle of the papal hierarchy against any modification of the Aristotelian motionless Earth–center of the Universe. For example, in 1616, Jesuit prelate Cardinal Bellarmine proclaimed the Nicolaus Copernicus’ model of the Universe violation of the Holy Scriptures.

Nevertheless, the discovery of the papal prelate (who supposed to be learned and especially, well acquainted with the Scriptures) that the Scriptures describe the Earth as the Aristotelian motionless god–center of the Universe is not possible to confirm with the text of the Scriptures. It means that Jesuit and Cardinal Bellarmine confused the Bible with the Aristotle’s writings. Nevertheless, in 1663, the Inquisition under the threat of inhumane torture compelled Galileo Galilei to withdraw his defense of the Copernicus’ model [Trager 223, 232].  

C/ The “Ideal Good” is separate and independent from the common good, which is inherent for all things. Things are good when they are “eligible or desirable.” All is measured by availability for practical use: goodness itself is “the sort of disposition.” Actions are a greater good than the attitude and disposition: “activity is a more desirable thing than goodness.” The good of the unchangeable things is not practicable; the Absolute Good that is not practicable should not be sought after. The Absolute Good is good when it is the End {result} “practicable for man”: the good in things must be considered without the reference to the Ideal (Absolute) Good, only significance for men is the measure of the good. Such practicable good “comes under the supreme of all the practical sciences, which is Politics and Economics and Wisdom”: the morality is the subject of social or political science because social life and action are the best amenities, and the society is the best of men [Aristotle Eudemian Ethics I.viii.19–20; II.i.4, 24; II.xi.11; VIII.i.7;  Magna Moralia I.i.1–3, 10–13, 26].

The ancient philosophers–predecessors of Plato and Aristotle created theological and philosophical doctrines, where God–Ideal (or Absolute) Good is the source of life, source of origin of the Universe and everything it contains, the source and the main object of knowledge, and the highest moral criterion for judgment of the good of men. The ideal good became the three–dimensional unity:

the primal cause of Universe

the man’s main object of knowledge

the man’s main standard of behavior (virtue).

For men, the Absolute–Ideal Good is the main object of cognition and cognition is the life of reason, therefore, everything might be expressed in the terms of good and knowledge, even the virtues are the kind of knowledge – knowledge of the good. Therefore, the Absolute/Ideal Good, Intelligence, and knowledge were linked in the inner structure of the Universe and the framework of existence of men.

To the contrary, gods and the Ideal Good are not the Aristotle’s reality: he is not able to sense or to experience the Ideal Good, as well as to confirm existence of gods. Therefore, he needs to re–define the highest standards according to his reality with the practical objectives: to determine how to govern the social life of men and to stipulate the criteria for judgment of men according to the common good of the society.

The ancient Greek philosophy describes unchangeability as the attribute of deities, and the Absolute Good as the source of creation of the Universe, intelligence, and the life of men. It penetrates all structures of the Universe and sustains life of all creations. A human being cannot be separated from the Absolute Good because it is the essence of the Intelligence, therefore, the essence of the human nature, the highest human ideal, and the highest moral value.

Aristotle separated the realm of gods from the realm of men.  In fact, the ability to discard the imaginary world of heathen deities could signify the extraordinary abilities of reasoning. However, along with his gods, Aristotle discards their traditional attribute – the Absolute Good – as impracticable for men, thus cuts off the living beings–creations of the Absolute Good from their creator and the source of their life. He rejects the Absolute Good of gods as the highest value of men and elevates the αγορα (market) at the level of the highest good: in the Aristotelian world, all must be judged by suitability for practical use. While Plato only mentions the necessity to know how to use the result [e.g., Plato Euthydemus 289a–b] as the natural finishing point of cognition, Aristotle presents the end of an action as the main criterion of the good. In the end of the nineteenth century, Nietzsche reconciled the Plato’s vision of man with the Aristotle’s practical virtues in the following assertions, which later were embodied into Nazi ideology: the will to achieve the end and to use the means to achieve it becomes the high morality; virtues must be justified economically and to become the “machine–like virtues” because man must be “an infallible machine” for the state [Nietzsche §880, §888 316, 321–322; italic in the original].

Such deprivation of the Absolute Good had instant practical consequences. Aristotle asserted that no one science should “predicate goodness of its end,” because a physician does not proclaim that health is the good thing, and the universal (Absolute) Good should not be a subject of single science. Social science, as any other single science, must not consider the Absolute Good; its subject is “the best that is the best for men” [Aristotle Magna Moralia I.i.14–23].

In traditional (pre–Orphic) Greek philosophy, the Absolute/Ideal Good is the cause of all things within the Universe, the main object of cognition, and the main standard–virtue, therefore, the essence of existence of men and the property of all creations of the Intelligence. Consequently, the sciences should study the particular measure of good dispensed by the Intelligence into specific things, relations, and properties within the material world, and provide recommendations how to employ this measured good for the good of men; otherwise, there is no reason for existence of the sciences.

Separation of the Absolute Good from the material things–creations of the Absolute Good, from the sciences as the means to create knowledge, and from the virtues as derivatives of the Absolute Good, completed the disconnection of the Aristotelian world from the Intelligence and Absolute Good. Later, the Aristotle’s assumption that no science should refer to the Ideal Good revived in the Max Weber’s concept of ethical neutrality of sciences.

 

*42* See posting Ecumenism, Folder World & War

 

*43* See Works of Friedrich Nietzsche in Folder Heathen Philosophy, Page 8, and The Invincible Empire, Chapter 8.

 

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References:

 

Aristotle. "The Eudemian Ethics."  The Athenian Constitution. The Eudemian Ethics. On Virtues and Vices. v. 20. With an English Translation by H. Rackham. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard UP; London:  William Heinemann, 1971. 23 vols.

 

Aristotle. "The Magna Moralia." The Metaphysics. v.2. With an English Translation by G. Cyril Armstrong. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard UP; London:  William Heinemann, 1935. 425–685. 2 vols.

 

Aristotle. "On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias." Minor Works by Aristotle. With an Eniglish Transl. by W.S. Hett. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP; London:  William Heinemann, 1936.  462–507.

 

Aristotle. "The Oeconomica." The Metaphysics. v.2. With an English Translation by G. Cyril Armstrong. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP; London: William Heinemann, 1935. 321–424. 2 vols.

 

Aristotle. On the Heavens. With an English Translation by W.K.C. Guthrie. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard UP;  London:  William Heinemann, 1939.

 

Aristotle. The Physics. With an English translation by Philip H. Wicksteed and Francis M. Cornford. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard UP; London:  William Heinemann, 1968. 2 vols.

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